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What do you mean by " Climate Migrants"? suggest appropriate policies and programme for their resettlement.

What do you mean by " Climate Migrants"? suggest appropriate policies and programs for their resettlement.
(UPSC geography optional paper 1 2019, 15 Marks)


The following will be discussed:
  • Definition of Climate Migrants
  • Status
  • Types
  • Suggested Policy 
Climate migrants are Migrants that are led by Push factors caused by climate changes such as:

  • Intense Flood
  • Sea level rise
  • Drought or crop failure or water shortage
  • Desertification

As per the world migration report 2020,
  • In 2018 there were 28 million people internal displacement across the globe due to weather-related events such as cyclones flood
  • South Asia's population has the highest number of people, risk of displacement. Bangladesh, India, Pakistan have the highest risk of climate change.
  • Rise in sea level due to climate change is the most threat to the Asia Pacific region.
  • 37 million people would be displaced on the meter of sea rise and twice will be displaced on 2 meters of sea rise.

As per World Bank reports,
  • 143 million people would be forced to displaced due to climate change from Latin America, Sub Sahara Africa, and South Asia by 2050.
  • 40 million climate migrants will be from South Asia. due to:
    • Characterized by rainfed farmland.
    • Variability in monsoon and warmer temperature
    • Crop failure
    • Mumbai, Chennai, Chittagong, Dhaka vulnerability to storm surge.

Climate migrant can be two types:

  • Internal migration
  • International migration
Most of the migrants will be within the border from rural areas to urban settlement and it will stress the natural resources.

Policy suggestion:
  • Reduction Greenhouse Gases( GHG) are key for reduction.
  • Development planning must be integrated with migration management.
  • Near urban settlement will be the hotspot for in-migration and areas have already faced problems like water shortage, waste management, pollution, and poor infrastructure. It must be handled effectively.
  • Skill building, job training, and opportunities for education, a job is needed.
  • Internation law is needed to cooperate, international climate migrants.

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