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Inter state issues UPSC | Political Aspects | Geography of India

From the geographical point of views, there are two types of interstate disputes:

  • Land Dispute
  • Water Dispute

There are many interstate land disputes, some important land disputes are:

  • Assam and Nagaland; 
    • Assam accuses Nagaland of encroachment of approx. 20,000 hectares areas.
    • Both share a 512 km boundary and most violence occurs
    • In 1965, Nagaland militant killed more than 100 people in Golaghat district
  • Assam and Meghalaya:
    • Meghalaya claim two blocks of Assam's Karbi Anglong district 
    • Meghalaya claims Mihir hill
  • Assam and Arunachal Pradesh; 
    • Arunachal Pradesh and Assam both accuse each other of land encroachment.
  • Maharashtra and Karnataka; 
    • Marathi speaking village in Belgaum that includes 814 villages and three urban settlement
    • 260 villages of Kannada speaking are also in Maharashtra
  • Karnataka and Kerala;  
    • Karnataka claim Kasaragod district of Kerala
  • Odisha has a border dispute with West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, and Jharkhand.
  • Gujarat and Rajasthan; 
    • Gujarat claims part of the Sabarkantha district of Rajasthan.
    • Gujarat claims half of Mangadh hill 
Most violent disputes are seen in Northeastern states over land.

Inter-state water disputes:
Lots of water needed for agriculture. Downstream states face the adverse effects of water due to the diversion of water by upstream states.
The following are major interstates water dispute over the sharing of water:

Cauvery river dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Cauvery Origin:
  • Brahmagiri hill in western Ghats in Karnataka.
  • 800 km
The upper coarse of the river receives rainfall from the Southwest monsoon and the lower coarse of the river receives rainfall from the Northeast monsoon.
Basin areas:
  • 3% Kerala
  • 41% Karnataka
  • 56% of Tamil Nadu.

  • Krishna and Godavari river water dispute between Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh. The objection raised by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to Maharashtra due to water diversion of the Koyna river.
  • Godavari water dispute; Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha.
  • Ravi-Beas water dispute: Punjab and Haryana
  • Narmada water dispute: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
For a detailed explanation, watch the below video:

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