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Tribal area development UPSC | Regional Development and Planning | Geography of India

As of now, tribal people are found everywhere in India except Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Chandigarh, and Puducherry.

The following are major problems in Tribal Areas:

  • Land Alienation and forced migration:
    • Due to selective development activities such as mining, industry setup, a town set up, Dam building, and other activities; lands of tribal people are being encroached and that leads to forces migration.
    • Losing land means losing the source of income and forced to work as labor.
  • Exploitation by outsides such as contractors and moneylender
  • Lack of basic infrastructure due to rough terrain
  • Economic activities are largely based on agriculture and allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing
  • Hunger and malnutrition problems
  • Health problems
  • Lack of socio-economic development

Tribal welfare ministry is set up to develop for tribal communities.

The following are welfare schemes for tribal areas:

Integrated Tribal Development Project(ITDP):
It was launched under the tribal sub-plan in the fifth five-year plan( 1974-78). The strategy of ITDP varied from region to region to solving the local problems. However, the following are major objectives:
  • Elimination of exploitation
  • Improving Educational status
  • Reducing the Poverty
  • Improving the basic infrastructure such as Irrigation, schools, and hospital

Under this plan, the following activities are done:
  • Development of transport and communication network such as road. bridge, railways, etc.
  • Development of agricultural and allied activities such as irrigation 
  • Afforestation
  • Plantation such as rubber, Cashew nut, etc
  • Easy Loan for self-employment
  • Skill enhancement programs such as Sewing, typing, hardware maintenance, electronics, electrical,  Sculpture, etc.
  • Social and common services such as 
    • School
    • Health care facilities
    • Potable water such as Hand Pump
    • Electricity

Evaluation of the Integrated Tribal Development Project(ITDP):

The implication of ITDP in the Bharmour Tribal region, Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh:
  • The female literacy rate rose from 1.88 % in 1971 to 65 % in 2011
  • Gender inequality and the gap between the male literacy rate and female literacy rate declined
  • Subsistence agriculture to cash crop
  • Areas of pulse and cash crop increased
  • Only 10 % of populate practice transhumance 

TRIFED in 1987: 

  • TRIFED means " Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India" and it is for products made by tribal communities.

PESA act 1996:

  • Panchyatraj extension to scheduled areas.
Forest Right Acts - 2006:

  • Adequate ownership and power in the forest right.
Eklavya Model Residential Schools ( EMRS):
  • More than 400 EMRS will set up by 2020 under the ministry of tribal affairs.
  • The objective is to enable them to avail reservation in high and professional and jobs.
Van Dhan Vikas Kendra and Van bandhu Kalyan Yojana:
  • The mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Production ( MFP) through Minimum Support Price.
Establishing Ashram Schools in tribal areas.

Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojna:
It is for the holistic development of tribal people socially, economically, culturally.

For a detailed explanation, watch the below video:

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