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Factors influence the growth of wild plants in India

 Which factors influence the growth of wild plants in India? Discuss their economic significance.  (UPSC-2020, 10 Marks, 150 words)


Wild plants are also called natural plants or natural vegetation which are grown naturally in the jungle or wasteland or along with agricultural fields without human intervention. Wild plant species adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as much as possible; that is why they are self-sustainable.
The following factors influence the growth of wild plants in India;
  • In areas with heavy rainfall, large trees are grown; As the volume of precipitation decreases, the size and density of wild plants decrease.  For example, We can see very large and dense wild plants in the Western Ghats and Andaman  & Nicobar Islands; Very scanty and thorny plants are seen in Desert areas of Rajasthan.
Temperature and photoperiod; 
  • In India, all types of wild vegetation are found from tropical to temperate to tundra. High temperature and photoperiod regions with high rainfall have generally had dense wild plants.

  • The size and density of vegetation also decrease with the increase of altitude from the certain level; We can see a succession of wild vegetation in Himalayan regions wherein the higher altitude only grass and flowering plants are supported whereas we can see very dense wildlife in the foothill of Himalayas.
Topography and soils;
  •  In the hilly region of India such as the Northeastern states, we can see very dense wild plants and plains and fertile lands that have very few wild plants.
The economic significance of Wild plants;
The following are economic significant;
  • Used as raw materials for pulp, paper, and wood industries;
  • It provides energy, food, and fooder to the majority of the rural population.
  • Some Wild plants have medicinal values.
  • It provides scenic beauty that attracts tourists.
  • It provides Minor forest produce that supports the livelihood of the millions of tribal population.
  • It cleans the environment and also reduces noise pollution.
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