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BPSC Geography Syllabus

 Section-1 ( Principles of Geography)

Part-A. Physical Geography:


Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust: earth’s movements and plate tectonics; 


The cycle of erosion - Davis, and Penck; 

fluvial, glacial, arid, and karst landforms; 

Rejuvenated and polycyclic landforms.

Climatology :

The atmosphere, its structure, and composition; 

air masses and fronts; 

cyclones and related phenomena; 

climatic classification; Koeppen and Thornthwait; 

groundwater and hydrological cycle.

Soils and vegetation :

Soil genesis, classification, and distribution: 

ecological aspects of savanna and monsoon forest biomes.


Ocean bottom relief, Relief of Indian Ocean floor. 


Currents and tides; 

Ocean deposits and coral reefs.

Ecosystem :

Ecosystem concept, 

Man’s impact on the ecosystem, 

Global ecological imbalances.

Part-B. Human and Economic Geography.

Development of Geographical Thought:

Contributions of European and British Geographers,

determinism and possibilism; 

Dualism in Geography,

quantitative and behavioral revolutions in geography.

Human Geography:

The emergence of man and races of mankind cultural evolution of man; 

major cultural realms of the world;

international migrations, past and present; 

world population distribution and growth;

demographic transition and world population.

Settlements Geography:

Concepts of rural and urban settlements, Organs of Urbançation; Rural settlement patterns; 

city classifications; 

urban spheres of influence and the rural-urban fringe, the internal structure of cities;

problems of urban growth in the world.

Political Geography:

Concepts of nation and state; frontiers, boundaries, and buffer zones; 

the concept of heartland and rimland; 


Economic Geography:

World economic development-measurement and problems; 

the concept of resources, world resources, their distribution, and global problems; 

world energy crisis; and limits to growth; 

world agriculture-typology and world agricultural regions; 

theory of agricultural location, world industry-theory of

location of industries; 

world industrial patterns and problems; 

world trade and world trade patterns.



Physical Aspects:

Geological history, Physiography, and drainage systems;

origin and mechanism of the Indian monsoon. 

soils and vegetation.

Human Aspects:

Tribal areas and their problems; population distribution, density, and growth; 

population problems and policies.


Conservation and utilçation of land mineral water biotic and marine resources; 

ecological problems and their management.


Irrigation intensity of cropping, crop combinations, green revolution, agricultural land use policy.

Rural economy:

Animal husbandry, social forestry, and household industry.


History of industrial development; 

factors of location study of mineral-based, agro-based, and forest-based industries, 

industrial complex, and industrial regionalization.

Transport and Trade:

Study of the network of roadways railways, and waterways.

Intra and inter-regional trade and the role of rural market centers.


Rural Settlement patterns;

Urban development in Indian and its problems, the internal structure of Indian cities; 

town planning, slums, and urban housing; national urbanization policy.

Regional Development and planning:

Five-year plan; multilevel planning; state, district, and block-level planning.

regional disparities in development in India.

Political Aspects:

The political problem of India, state reorgançation; the international boundary of India, and related issues; 

India and geopolitics of the Indian Ocean area.


Physiographic divisions, Soils, Forests, Climate, Pattern of agriculture.

The problem of drought-prone and flood-affected regions and their solutions,

Chief minerals resources: iron ores, copper, bauxite, mica, and coal,

Principal industries: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, sugar,

Principal industrial regions,

Problems of the population in Bihar,

The problem of the tribal population and their solution, 

The pattern of urbanization in Bihar,

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