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Explain different types and works of disaster management. । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2021


Explain different types and works of disaster management.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2021)


Disasters are unwanted events that cause large-scale damage to human life and its property. For example, a cyclone is one type of disaster that causes large-scale damage in coastal areas.

Disasters can be different types based on their origin, nature, and scale. However, based on the origin, there are two types of disasters-

  • Natural Disaster
  • Man-made disaster

Natural Disaster; Natural disasters are those disasters that are mainly caused by nature and there is no direct role of humans in their origin. Some examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, cyclones, floods, droughts, and wildfires.

Man-made disaster; Man-made disasters are those disasters that are caused by errors in processing or technology or have direct involvement of humans in their origin. Some examples of man-made disasters are industrial incidents ( like the Bhopal gas leakage tragedy), nuclear bomb attack, terrorist attacks, war, civil unrest, and Dam burst.

Preparing, preventing, responding, and recovering from a disaster is called disaster management. Effective disaster management involves the coordination of multiple agencies and organizations to minimize the damage and loss of life caused by disasters.

Different type of Work in disaster management includes-

  • Prevention
  • Preparedness
  • Response
  • Recovery

Prevention; Prevention stage is the first stage of disaster management, which aims to reduce the risk of disasters. This includes implementing policies, building codes, and regulations to ensure that infrastructure and buildings are built to withstand disasters.

Preparedness; Preparedness stage is the second stage of disaster management, which aim to develop plans and procedure to respond to disasters. Preparedness includes identifying potential hazards and risks, training emergency volunteers, and creating evacuation plans.

Response; Response stage is the third stage of disaster management, which includes immediate actions taken to save lives and minimize damage during and immediately after the disaster. It includes rescue and evacuation efforts, setting up emergency shelters, providing medical care, and restoring essential services like communication facilities, electricity, and water.

Recovery; Recovery phase is the last stage of disaster management, which includes restoring the affected area to its pre-disaster stage. This includes rebuilding damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to individuals and society.

In conclusion, disaster management requires coordination between multiple agencies and organizations like government agencies ( central Disaster Management Authority or state disaster management authority ), Non-governmental organizations, and private sector organizations. Apart from the preparedness, prevention, response, and recovery stage of disaster management, disaster risk reduction through education and awareness campaigns is needed.

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