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What is meant by insurgency? Explain. । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2021


What is meant by insurgency? Explain.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2021)


Insurgency is one type of armed rebellion that is usually politically motivated against the government ( or constitutional authority). Insurgents are a group of individuals or an organization that seeks to overthrow an established government or authority.

There are many insurgent groups that are active in India, some examples of Insurgency are as follows-

  • Insurgency in the form of Maoism exists in central India mainly in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.
  • Insurgency in the form of separatist militants exists in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Insurgency in the form of armed rebellions exists in North Eastern States.

Insurgency usually exploits the weakness of the government by using asymmetric warfare tactics like hit-and-run attacks, ambushes, and other tactics.

The rise of insurgencies happens due to a variety of factors like ethnic or religious grievances, economic inequality, political repression, or foreign influences.

For example,

Insurgencies in Northeaster state is largely motivated by ethnic factor whereas insurgencies in Jammu and Kashmir is motivated by religious factor. 

In central India, the insurgency is largely motivated by income inequality.

Insurgencies often pose a significant challenge to established governments, as the established government faces difficulty to defeat using conventional military tactics.

Insurgencies often operate in small and decentralized groups, and very difficult to security forces to identify and neutralize them.

 To address insurgency problems, the government needs effective strategies that combine the military, political, and economic efforts that isolate them from the local population. This involves deploying additional security forces, providing economic incentives to the local population, inclusive and sustainable growth in the affected region, and engaging in political negotiations with insurgents.


In conclusion, insurgency tends a serious challenge to the stability and security of countries and regions, and it requires careful and strategic management to address effectively.

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