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Define Biodiversity. Why are tropical countries rich in biodiversity? Explain. । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2019


Define Biodiversity. Why are tropical countries rich in biodiversity? Explain.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2019)


Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of living organisms present in a particular ecosystem, region, or on earth. 

Where there is more biodiversity, there are more different types of trees and animals, and such countries are called biodiversity countries.

Biodiversity plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance and resilience of ecosystems, providing many ecological services, and contributing to human well-being.

The countries located between the Tropic of Cancer (23 ° North Latitude) and the Capricorn (23 ° South Latitudes) are more rich in biodiversity.

India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Kango, and Brazil are some major countries that come under the tropical region, which is why these countries are known for biodiversity richness. 

There are several factors that contribute to the richness of biodiversity in tropical countries :

High temperature and High rainfall :

Tropical region experience high and relatively stable temperatures throughout the year, and they also receive abundant rainfall. These favorable climate conditions provide a favorable environment for diverse flora and fauna.

High temperatures and high rainfall help the flora to high primary productivity, this abundance of energy supports the growth of diverse plant species, which sustain a wide array of animal life.

Stable climate:

Tropical regions have been relatively stable over a long period, providing stability and continuity for evolutionary processes. The absence of extreme environmental fluctuations and glaciations allows species to evolve and adapt in the specific niche. 

Habitat Heterogeneity: 

Tropical countries have a range of diverse habitats including rainforests, mangroves, coral reefs, savannas, wetlands, and grasslands. The diversity in habitat allows the coexistence of numerous species and it promotes biodiversity.

In conclusion, tropical countries are rich in biodiversity due to a variety of factors like High temperature and rainfall, a stable climate, and habitat heterogeneity. However, these regions are also vulnerable to human activities such as deforestation, habitat destruction, and climate change, which pose significant threats to their biodiversity. 

Conservation efforts and sustainable practices are crucial to preserving the extraordinary biodiversity of tropical countries and ensuring their long-term survival.

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