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Energy Security and energy crisis in India. । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2019

Table of Contents. 

  • Discuss the causes of the energy crisis in India. ( UPPSC 2019)
  • Energy security is the most important part of the economic progress of India. Analyse India's energy policy cooperation with West Asian countries. ( UPPSC 2022)


Discuss the causes of the energy crisis in India.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2019)


The wide gap between demand and supply of energy causes the energy crisis in India. The energy crisis happens due to either of low supply of energy that does not match the energy demand, or it happens due to high energy demand that is not able to match the supply, or can happen from both.

In the past, India faced three energy crises namely in the years 1973, 1990, and 2005 to 2008. 

Here are some causes of the energy crisis in India:

Dependency on fossil fuels; 

India is heavily dependent on fossil fuels like crude oil, natural gas, and coal. India has a limited reserve of crude oil making India susceptible to price fluctuations in the international market. India has sufficient coal reserves but we do not have good coking coal quality coal which is needed in the Steel Industry. So, overall we have a limited reserve of fossil fuels in India, which is the main reason for the major cause of the energy crisis in India.

Growing Population and Urbanization:

India is now the most populous country in the world and rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in surging demand for energy. The growing population and urbanization lead to a widening energy demand-supply gap. 

Inadequate infrastructure and distribution; 

Insufficient investment in transmission and distribution networks leads to significant energy losses in the transmission that hamper the efficient delivery of electricity. We face a shortage of coal in each monsoon season due to weak infrastructure of supply and storage of coal.

In-efficiency in energy consumption: 

Old machinery, lack of innovations, and lack of maintenance lead to high energy consumption in industrial sectors. As per estimates, India consumes more than twice to European countries for producing the same goods. Which leads to unnecessary energy consumption.

Insufficient investment in renewable energy; 

Although India is making great progress in capacity enhancement in the production of energy from renewable sources such as solar, wind, and hydro, however, they are not sufficient.

Climate change and global warming; 

Climate change and global warming impact energy consumption and availability. Global warming leads to an increase in energy demand while uncertainty in rainfall affects the hydroelectricity generation.

In conclusion, limited stock and fossil fuels in India, large population and urbanization, and insufficient investment in renewable sources of energy are major causes of the energy crisis in India. Addressing the energy crisis requires a comprehensive approach that involves investment in renewable sectors, improving energy efficiency, and promoting sustainable consumption of energy.


Energy security is the most important part of the economic progress of India. Analyse India's energy policy cooperation with West Asian countries

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-II/GS-1 2022)


Energy security is indeed crucial for the economic progress of India as the Indian economy is growing rapidly and the increasing energy demands of its population. 

India's energy policy involves cooperation with West Asian countries, which are major oil and gas producers, to ensure a stable and sustainable energy supply. 

Let's analyze India's energy policy cooperation with West Asian countries:

Import of Oil and Gas: 

India heavily relies on West Asian countries for its oil and gas imports. Countries like Saudi Arabia, Iraq, UAE, and Kuwait are major suppliers of crude oil to India. India's cooperation with West Asian countries includes long-term supply contracts and investment in oil and gas fields.

Strategic Partnerships: 

India has been actively pursuing strategic partnerships with West Asian countries in the energy sector. These partnerships aim to enhance energy security and explore new avenues for cooperation, including investments in oil and gas exploration, refining, and petrochemical projects.

Investment and Infrastructure: 

India has made significant investments in West Asian countries' energy projects, particularly in the oil and gas sector. Indian companies have acquired stakes in oil fields and refineries, contributing to the development of the energy infrastructure in the region.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Imports: 

Apart from crude oil, India has also been importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Qatar, Oman, and other West Asian countries. This diversification of energy sources helps mitigate risks and ensures a stable supply of energy to meet the growing demand.

Energy Diplomacy:

India engages in energy diplomacy with West Asian countries through high-level visits, energy dialogues, and bilateral agreements. These efforts help foster closer ties and ensure mutual benefits in the energy sector.

Security of Supply: 

Cooperation with West Asian countries helps India secure its energy supplies and reduces vulnerability to global energy price fluctuations and geopolitical risks.

Renewable Energy Cooperation: 

In recent years, India has also been exploring opportunities for cooperation with West Asian countries in the renewable energy sector. There have been discussions on solar power projects, research collaborations, and the sharing of best practices in renewable energy deployment.

Investment in Petrochemicals: 

India's cooperation with West Asian countries also extends to the petrochemical sector, where there have been joint ventures and investments in refining and downstream industries.

Stability in Energy Prices:

India's energy cooperation with West Asian countries aims to maintain stability in energy prices, benefiting both consumers and producers.

Despite the benefits of energy cooperation with West Asian countries, some challenges need to be addressed:

Geopolitical Risks: 

The volatile political situation in the Middle East can pose risks to India's energy security. Conflicts or disruptions in the region can impact energy supplies and prices.

Energy Transition: 

As the world shifts towards cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, India needs to balance its energy cooperation with West Asian countries while also focusing on its renewable energy goals.

Infrastructure Constraints: 

Building and maintaining energy infrastructure, such as pipelines and refineries, require significant investments and coordination between India and West Asian countries.

In conclusion, India's energy policy cooperation with West Asian countries is a critical aspect of its energy security and economic progress. The partnerships in the oil and gas sector, investments, and diplomatic efforts contribute to stable energy supplies, diversification of sources, and mutual benefits for both India and the West Asian countries. 

However, addressing geopolitical risks and adapting to the changing energy landscape is essential for ensuring sustainable energy security in the long run.

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