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Vijayanagara Kingdom | Short Notes on Vijayanagara Empire | Vijayanagara Empire Short Notes | Vijayanagara Empire UPSC

Vijayanagar Empire:

Vijayanagar Empire was established at the end of the Delhi Sultanate period.  In 1336 CE, Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijayanagar Empire, and both had served in the army of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Sultan of Delhi. So, at the time of the foundation of the Vijayanagar empire, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ( 1290 CE to 1351 CE) was the ruler of Delhi.

Vijayanagara Empire Short Notes

Period: 1336 to 1672 C.E.

There were four dynasties in the Vijaya Nagar Empire, the names of the four dynasties were


Sangama Dynasty ( 1336 to 1585 CE):

Important rulers of the Sangama dynasty were

  • Harihara Raya I
  • Bukka Raya
  • Virupakshha Raya II
  • Praudha Raya


Saluva Dynasty: ( 1485 to 1491)

Important rulers of the Saluva dynasty were

  • Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya
  • Thimma Bhuala
  • Narasimha Raya II

Tuluva Dynasty ( 1491 to 1542)

Important rulers of the Tuluva dynasty were

  • Tuluva Narasa Nayaka
  • Viranrasimha Raya
  • Krishna Deva Raya
  • Achuta Deva Raya
  • Sadashiva Raya


Aravida Dynasty ( 1542 to 1646)

Important rulers of the Aravida dynasty were
  • Aliya Rama Raya
  • Tirumala Deva Raya
  • Venkata III
  • Sriranga III


Foreign travelers during the Vijayanagar Empire;

  • Nichole de Conti from Italy visited the empire during Devaraya I. He described the Sati practice.
  • Abdul Razzaq visited Hampi, he was from Persia. He described the beauty of the city of Hampi.
  • Domingo Paes and Barbosa, both visited during Krishnadeva Raya.
  • Nuniz visited during Achyutamdeva Raya

Geographical areas of the Vijayanagar Empire:

Capital: Hampi City

Geographical areas; Area between Krishna River to the Southern Ocean.

Mysore and Madurai were captured by Harihara I.

Present-day Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and part of Odisha were part of the Vijayanagar Empire.


The empire was divided into six Provinces.

Governor who had the responsibility to administer the province, which was commonly known as Naik.

Mahanayakacharya is the officer who makes contact between the villages and the Central administration.

Revenue Administration;

The land was carefully surveyed and taxes were collected based on the fertility of the soil.


The empire was secular in nature.

Child marriage, polygamy, and sati were prevalent.

Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil, and Kannada languages were patronized.


The Hazara Ramasami  Temple ( Hampi), Lotus Temple ( Hampi), Vittalaswami Temple ( Lord Vishnu, Hampi), and Virupaksha Temple ( Lord Shiva, Stone Chariot, Hampi) were built during this period.

Krishnadeva Raya :

The famous king of the Vijayanagar empire was Krishnadeva Raya  ( 1509 to 1529 C.E.) of the Tuluva dynasty.

He was the third King of the Tuluva dynasty.

Birth; 1471 C. E, Hampi City of Karnataka

Father Name; Tuluva Narasa Nayak, the Army of Saluva Dynasty king “Narasimha Deva Raya”. His father established the Tuluva Empire

Portuguese traveler “Domingo Paes” visited during the rule of Krishnadeva Raya. He mentioned the Krishnadeva Raya was the most featured and perfect king. He compared the size of the Vijayanagar Empire to the Roman Empire.

Babar recognized the Rana Sanga and Krishnadeva Raya as great Hindu kings.

He had Ashtadiggajas ( eight Ratna in his court); an Ashtadiggajas group of eight scholars in his court. Names of Ashtadiggajas are-

1. Nandi Thimmana ( author of Parijathapaharanam)

2. Alasani Peddanna ( Author of Manucharitram or Andhra Kavitapitamaha)

3. Madayagari Mallana

4. Dhurjati

5. Tanali Ramakrishna

6. Ramaraja Bhushana

7. Pingali Surana

8. Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra Kavi

Title of Krishnadeva Raya;

The following are four titles of Krishnadeva Raya:

  • Karnataka Ratna Simhasana De Eshwara ( Lord of the Jewelled throne of Karnataka)
  • Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana ( Lord of the Kannada empire)
  • Andhra Bhoja Yaani ( Scholar of Andhra)
  • Gaubrahmana Pratipalaka Yanni ( Protector of Brahmin and Cow)

He recruited troops from Morasa, Kabbili, and Tulu tribes to strengthen the military.

Enemies: Gajapati ruler of Odisha and Portuguese

Book; He has written a book named Amuktamalyada ( Telugu book).

Krishnadeva Ray defeated the Gajapati rulers and he married the daughter of the Gajapati ruler ( Princess Annapurna)

He also defeated the Chola ruler.

This age is considered the Telugu Golden Age.

Battle of Talikota (1565 AD): During the Rama Raya rule collective force of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda, and Bidar attacked Vijayanagar. Rama Raya was defeated; Hampi City was robbed and also destroyed.



Try to solve the following questions.

1.  What have been the methods used to study the ruins of Hampi over the last two centuries? In what way do you think they would have complemented the information provided by the priests of the Virupaksha temple? ( NCERT)

2.  How were the water requirements of Vijayanagara met? ( NCERT)

3. What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city? ( NCERT)

4.  What do you think was the significance of the rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba? (NCERT)

5. What are the architectural traditions that inspired the architects of Vijayanagara? How did they transform these traditions? (NCERT)

6. What impression of the lives of the ordinary people of Vijayanagara? (NCERT)

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