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What are the major challenges in reducing poverty and inequality in India? । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2020


What are the major challenges in reducing poverty and inequality in India?

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2020)


Reducing poverty and inequality is not only India's goal but also it is also the United Nation's Sustainable development goal. No poverty ( Goal 1), Gender equality (Goal 5), and reduced inequality (Goal 10) are three goals that are part of 17 total United Nationals development goals.

India faces several major challenges in reducing poverty and inequality, some of the key challenges include-

Income Disparities: a large portion of the Indian population lives below the poverty line while a small portion of the population enjoys substantial wealth. Addressing income inequality requires implementing policies and programs that promote equitable distribution of resources and opportunities.


Agricultural Challenges: Large portion of the Indian population are directly or indirectly dependent on the agriculture sector. Low agriculture productivity, small land holding, lack of access to credit and market, climate changes, and uncertainty on monsoon rains are major causes of low income of farmers and also poverty in India. Growth in the agriculture sectors will ensure the wellness of farmers, which will reduce poverty and gender inequality in India.

Digital divide and digital illiteracy; Large portion of the population especially in marginalized communities which include the rural population, women, poor, and weaker sections of societies lack digital literacy, which prevents them to access modern advances in information technology. Because of the digital divide, digital illiteracy, and lack of skill, the major portion of the population is not able to get the benefits of service sectors and high-tech jobs.

Rural-Urban divide; There is a significant gap between rural and urban areas in terms of access to basic services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities. Bridging the gap between the rural and urban would be crucial for reducing poverty and inequality.

Unemployment; India faces the challenges of high unemployment rates, particularly among the youth. Creating sufficient job opportunities and ensuring decent work conditions are essentials for poverty reduction and reducing income disparities.

Gender Inequality; Gender inequality remains a significant challenge in India. Women face discrimination and limited access to education, employment, and resources. Empowering women through gender-sensitive policies, promoting education, and addressing social and cultural biases are critical for reducing poverty and inequality.


Social exclusion and caste-based discrimination; The caste system in India has historically led to social exclusion and discrimination against marginalized communities. Equal opportunities to all communities and promoting social inclusion are vital for reducing poverty and inequality.

Corruption and Governance Issues: Corruption and weak governance undermine poverty reduction efforts and inequality efforts. Strengthening institutions, promoting transparency, and ensuring accountability in public administration are essential for creating enabling healthy environment for poverty reduction and equitable development.

Climate change and Environmental sustainability; Climate changes and environmental degradation often pose significant loss, especially to poor people, and they also undermine the effort of poverty reduction programs and equitable development. Building resilience to climate change, promoting sustainable practices, and integrating environmental considerations into development planning is crucial for poverty reduction and inequality in India.

In conclusion, we can say poverty and inequality are major problems in India. It can be solved using inclusive and sustainable development that requires a multi-faceted approach involving effective policies, inclusive governance, focus on education and healthcare, employment generation, rural development, and reducing the digital divide.

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