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Mention any two merits of railways. | Class 7 NCERT - Our Environment ( GEOGRAPHY), SOCIAL SCIENCE


Mention any two merits of railways.

( Chapter 7: Human Environment–Settlement, Transport, and Communication, Class 7- Our Environment ( GEOGRAPHY), SOCIAL SCIENCE)


The following are two merits of railways:

Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness:

Railways are an efficient mode of transportation for moving large quantities of goods and people over long distances. They can transport large cargo in a single trip, making them cost-effective, especially for heavy or bulk goods.

Low Environmental Impact: 

Rail transport is generally more environmentally friendly compared to some other modes of transportation, like roadways or air travel. Trains produce fewer emissions per ton-mile of freight or passenger transported, contributing to reduced air pollution and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

The following are some other merits of railway transport:

Efficient Transportation: 

Railways are known for their efficiency in moving large quantities of goods and people over long distances. They can carry heavy cargo loads and accommodate numerous passengers, reducing road congestion and fuel consumption.

Environmentally Friendly: 

Trains are generally more fuel-efficient and produce fewer emissions per ton-mile compared to most road vehicles and airplanes, making them a greener transportation option.


Rail travel is statistically one of the safest modes of transportation. The fixed infrastructure and stringent safety measures contribute to lower accident rates compared to other modes of transport.


Railways often operate on fixed schedules and are less susceptible to weather-related disruptions and traffic congestion, providing a reliable means of transportation.

Economic Impact: 

The development and maintenance of railway networks create jobs and stimulate economic growth in the regions they serve. They also facilitate trade and contribute to a country's economic development.

Long-Distance Travel: 

Railways are well-suited for long-distance travel, offering a comfortable and convenient mode of transportation for passengers covering vast distances.

Freight Transportation:

Railways are vital for the movement of bulk goods, such as coal, grain, and raw materials, which are essential for industries and economies.

Reduced Energy Consumption: 

Trains are energy-efficient, requiring less energy per unit of transportation compared to trucks or airplanes, which can help reduce overall energy consumption and costs.

Land Use Efficiency: 

Railways require less land compared to highways, making them a space-efficient transportation option, especially in densely populated areas.


Railway networks can connect remote and underserved areas, improving accessibility and fostering regional development.

Energy Diversity: 

Railways can be powered by a variety of energy sources, including electricity, diesel, and even renewable energy, contributing to energy diversity and sustainability.

These merits make railways a crucial component of transportation systems in India ( and also in many countries). These benefits are related to many social, economic, and environmental benefits.

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