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Vedic period important questions and Answers

 Table of Contents: 

  • Describe the main features of the Vedic education system and review its significance in the present. ( UPPSC 2019)
  • Describe the geographical features of India mentioned in the Vedic literature. ( UPPSC 2021)
  • Explain the points of Ancient Indian knowledge on the basis of which India was designated as "Vishwaguru". ( UPPSC 2022)

Descriptive Questions on Vedic Literature:


Describe the main features of the Vedic education system and review its significance in the present. ( UPPSC 2019, General Studies 1)


The Vedic education system refers to the ancient educational practices that were prevalent during the Vedic period in ancient India, which was from 1500 BCE to 500 BCE. 

The Vedic education system was primarily focused on the transmission of knowledge related to the Vedas, the ancient scriptures of Hinduism in oral forms. 

The following are the main features of the Vedic education system:

Gurukula System: 

Education in the Vedic period took place in Gurukulas, which were residential schools run by a guru (teacher). Students ( Shishus ) lived with the guru and received education in a disciplined and holistic environment. 

The guru provided knowledge not only through formal instruction but also through personal interaction and experiential learning.

Oral Tradition: 

Vedic knowledge was transmitted orally from the guru to the students. The students memorized sacred texts, including hymns, rituals, philosophy, and other branches of knowledge. 

The emphasis on oral transmission ensured the preservation and accuracy of the sacred scriptures.

Study of Vedas and Vedic Literature: 

The core focus of Vedic education was the study and understanding of the Vedas, which consisted of hymns, rituals, and philosophical concepts. 

The students learned the correct recitation, pronunciation, and intonation of the Vedic verses. Alongside the Vedas, other Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads were also studied, providing a broader understanding of Vedic knowledge.

Guru-Disciple Relationship: 

The relationship between the guru and the student was highly sacred and held great significance. The guru was not only an instructor but also a mentor and spiritual guide to the students. This relationship was characterized by respect, obedience, and a deep bond of trust.

Emphasis on Character Development: 

The Vedic education system was aimed at the holistic development of individuals. Alongside the acquisition of knowledge, the students were also taught moral values, ethics, discipline, and virtues. Character-building and self-discipline was an integral part of education.

Practical Training: 

The Vedic education system included practical training in various aspects of life. This encompassed learning practical skills, including agriculture, trade, warfare, and governance. Students were prepared for their future roles and responsibilities in society.

The significance of the Vedic education system in the present can be seen in several aspects:

Preservation of Ancient Knowledge: 

The Vedic education system played a crucial role in preserving and passing down the ancient knowledge, traditions, and cultural heritage of India. It ensured the continuity of the Vedas and other Vedic texts, which remain important religious and philosophical scriptures today.

Emphasis on Moral and Ethical Values: 

The Vedic education system focused not only on intellectual development but also on character-building and moral values. The emphasis on ethics, discipline, and virtues has timeless relevance and can contribute to the overall development of individuals in modern society.

Holistic Education Approach: 

The Vedic education system recognized the importance of a holistic approach to education, which included intellectual, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects. This approach promotes a well-rounded education that goes beyond academic knowledge.

Guru-Disciple Relationship: 

The relationship between a teacher and a student, characterized by respect, guidance, and mentorship, is still considered valuable in modern educational practices. The guru-disciple model can inspire effective teaching methods and foster a strong bond between educators and students.

While the Vedic education system may not be directly applicable in its traditional form today, its underlying principles and values can inform educational philosophies and approaches. Incorporating elements such as moral education, character development, and a holistic approach to learning can enhance the modern education system and contribute to the overall well-being and development of individuals in contemporary.


Describe the geographical features of India mentioned in the Vedic literature. ( UPPSC 2021, General Studies 1)


The Vedic literature was composed during the early Vedic period [ 1500 BC to 1000 BC] and later Vedic period [ 1000 BC - 600 BC]. 

Vedic literature includes four Veda ( Rigvega, Samaveda, Ajurveda, and Atharveda), Aranyakas, Upanishads, and other Brahmanical Sastra.

Although the Vedic texts do not offer detailed descriptions of physical features, they do mention several prominent geographic elements that shaped the understanding of the region. 

The following are some of the geographical features of India mentioned in the Vedic literature:


The Vedic texts extensively describe several rivers, which were considered sacred and played a significant role in the daily lives of the people. The most revered river mentioned in the Vedas is the mighty Sarasvati, which was described as a powerful and wide-flowing river. However, the Saraswati River does not exist, however, it was the Ghaghar River which is presently found in Rajasthan and Haryana state.

Other prominent rivers mentioned include the Indus(Sindhu), Jhelum (Vitasta ), Beas(Vipasha), Chenab (Asikani), Ravi River ( Parushni/Iravati ), and Ganga.


The Vedas also refer to various mountain ranges. The most prominent among them is the Himalayas, described as the abode of the gods and a symbol of beauty and grandeur. Other mountain ranges mentioned include the Vindhya Range and the Aravalli Range.


Forests held a significant place in Vedic literature, representing the wild and untamed aspects of nature. The texts mention forests like the Naimisha Forest, Dandaka Forest, and Kamyaka Forest. These forests were often related to various mythological events and the dwelling places of sages and hermits.

Lakes and Water Bodies: 

The Vedic literature highlights the presence of lakes and water bodies. While specific lakes are not extensively mentioned, the texts refer to sacred ponds, tanks, and reservoirs used for ritualistic purposes.


The Vedic texts do not explicitly mention deserts within the Indian subcontinent. However, they mention the Maru country, which was related to arid regions or barren lands suggesting the presence of desert-like areas, possibly alluding to the Thar Desert (also known as the Great Indian Desert) in the northwest.

Cities and Settlements: 

The Vedic texts mention several cities and settlements that were centers of political, cultural, and religious activities. Some notable cities mentioned include Indraprastha (associated with present-day Delhi), Hastinapura (associated with present-day Meerut), and Ayodhya.

It's important to note that the geographical features mentioned in the Vedic literature were very old around 3500 years ago. Since then, the geographical landscape has changed a lot. Therefore, it may not directly correspond to the present-day landscape due to geological changes and the evolution of the region over time


Explain the points of Ancient Indian knowledge on the basis of which India was designated as "Vishwaguru".

( UPPSC 2022, General Studies 1)


The title "Vishwaguru" (World Teacher or World Guru) historically referred to India's role as a source of profound knowledge and wisdom. This designation was based on several key points of ancient Indian knowledge and contributions that showcased India's intellectual and cultural richness. 

Here are some of the fundamental aspects that contributed to India being designated as "Vishwaguru":

Spiritual and Philosophical Heritage:

India has been the birthplace of major religions and philosophical traditions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. These belief systems have explored profound questions about life, existence, and the nature of reality.

Yoga and Meditation:

India gave the world the practices of yoga and meditation, which promote physical and mental well-being. These practices are now globally recognized for their therapeutic and stress-relief benefits.

Vedas and Upanishads:

The ancient Indian scriptures known as the Vedas and Upanishads contain a vast repository of knowledge on subjects like philosophy, cosmology, ethics, and spirituality. They have influenced thought across the world.

Mathematics and Astronomy:

Ancient India made significant contributions to mathematics, with the development of concepts like zero, the decimal system, and algebra. Indian astronomers like Aryabhata made pioneering discoveries in celestial observations.

Ayurveda and Medicine:

Ayurveda, the traditional system of Indian medicine, emphasizes holistic healing and natural remedies. It has influenced alternative medicine systems worldwide and continues to be practiced today.

Literary Traditions:

India has a rich literary heritage, with ancient texts like the Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Puranas, as well as classical works of poetry and drama. These texts explore human values, ethics, and many more.

Art and Architecture:

India's art and architecture, seen in ancient temples, sculptures, and cave paintings, reflect intricate craftsmanship and a deep understanding of aesthetics. The Kama Sutra, an ancient Indian text on love and sexuality, also gained worldwide recognition.

Cultural Diversity:

India's cultural diversity, with multiple languages, cuisines, and traditions, has made it a source of fascination for scholars and travelers throughout history. It showcases the coexistence of various cultures and traditions.

Tolerance and Pluralism:

India has a long history of religious and cultural tolerance. It has been a safe haven for persecuted communities, fostering a tradition of pluralism and coexistence.

Trade and Exchange:

India's geographical location along ancient trade routes facilitated cultural exchanges with neighboring regions, contributing to the diffusion of knowledge and ideas.

The concept of "Vishwaguru" acknowledges India's ancient contributions in diverse fields of knowledge, philosophy, science, and culture. It signifies India's role as a repository of wisdom that has enriched humanity's understanding of the world and the human condition. While the term has historical significance, India's contributions to global knowledge continue to be valued and recognized in the modern world.

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26 October 2023 at 15:47 ×

thanks a ton ;->

Congrats bro Unknown you got PERTAMAX...! hehehehe...