Search Post on this Blog

Role of political parties in the Indian Political System | Indian Polity | General Studies II

 Table of Contents:

  • Critically examine the impact and role of political parties in the Indian Political System. ( UPPSC 2021)


Critically examine the impact and role of political parties in the Indian Political System.

 (UPPSC Mains General Studies-II/GS-2 2021)


Political parties play a crucial and complex role in the Indian political system. On the one hand, they are essential for the functioning of a vibrant democracy, representing diverse interests, and providing a platform for political participation. On the other hand, they face several challenges and criticisms that can impact governance and the overall health of the political system. 

Let's critically examine the impact and role of political parties in India:

Positive Impact and Role of political parties in India:

Representation of Diverse Interests: 

India is a diverse country with various linguistic, regional, religious, and caste-based identities. Political parties act as platforms to represent these diverse interests and aspirations. They give voice to various groups and communities, ensuring their concerns are addressed in the policymaking process.

Political Mobilization and Participation: 

Political parties are crucial for mobilizing citizens and encouraging political participation. They engage in voter outreach, and public campaigns, and encourage people to participate in the democratic process through voting and other means of civic engagement.

Shaping Public Policies: 

Political parties, when in power, are responsible for formulating and implementing public policies. Their ideologies, manifestos, and promises influence the direction of governance and shape the country's policies and laws.

Check on ruling Government: 

Opposition parties provide an essential check on the ruling government's power. They scrutinize government actions, hold them accountable, and provide alternative policy proposals. This ensures a system of checks and balances, critical for a functioning democracy.

Building Consensus: 

In a multi-party system like India's, coalition politics is common. Political parties often form alliances to create a consensus on important issues and to gain a majority in the legislature. This fosters collaboration and cooperation among different parties.

Negative Impact and Challenges of Political Parties in India:

Factionalism and Regionalism: 

Indian political parties often suffer from factionalism and regionalism, where internal divisions and identity politics can weaken the party's unity and focus on national interests.

Money and Muscle Power: 

Money and muscle power often influence political parties, leading to corruption, criminalization of politics, and the subversion of democratic principles.

Populist Measures:

Political parties, especially during elections, sometimes resort to populism, making unrealistic promises or distributing freebies. Such short-term measures can have adverse long-term effects on the economy and governance.

Lack of Internal Democracy: 

Many political parties lack internal democracy, with decision-making power concentrated in the hands of a few leaders or families. This stifles the rise of new leaders and ideas within the party.

Role of Dynastic Politics: 

In some parties, leadership positions are dominated by political dynasties, where leadership positions are passed down within a family. This can hinder meritocracy and restrict the diversity of leadership.


Some parties may resort to divisive tactics and identity-based politics to gain electoral advantages. This can lead to social and communal tensions, eroding social harmony.

Overall, while political parties play a crucial role in the Indian political system, there are both positive impacts and challenges they face. Strengthening internal democracy, promoting transparency and accountability, and reducing the influence of money and muscle power are essential for enhancing the positive impact of political parties and ensuring a healthier and more vibrant democratic system in India.

You may like also:

Next Post »