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1857 Revolt Notes for UPSC State PSC Exam

 Important statement regarding the 1857 Revolt:

"the so-called first national war of Independence was neither first, nor national, nor a war of independence ", is the statement of RC Majumdar.

"the revolt of 1857 was the first Independence War", is the statement of VD Savarkar.

"the revolt of 1857 was a conspiracy", is the statement of  Sir James Outram and W Taylor.

Important Date regarding Revolt 1857:

January 1857: The new Enfield Rifle with greased cartridges was introduced in the British Indian Army.

29 March 1857: The Mangal Pandey incident took place at Barrackpore, West Bengal. He belonged to the 34 Native Infantry.

8 April 1857: Mangal Pandey was hanged at Barrackpore.

May 10, 1857: Revolt started from Meerut. The movement of Sepoys started from Meerut to Delhi's Red Fort.

May 13, 1857:  Bahadur Shah Zafar proclaimed New Mughal Emperor;

Causes of Revolt 1857:

The immediate cause of India's first war of independence was the Suspicion of British interference in religion and the Policy of greased cartridges.

However, other causes include discriminatory policies, exploitative land revenue policies, and the Doctrine of Lapse.

Important Center and Leader in the 1857 Revolt:

Place:             Leader

Rai Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan

Oudh ( Lucknow): Begum Hazrat Mahal.

Prayagraj : Maulvi Liyaqat Ali.

Kanpur: Nana Saheb ( Tatya Tope: commander-in-chief, Advisor: Azimullah Khan )

Faizabad: Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah 

Assam: Diwan Maniram Dutta

Jagdishpur ( Bihar): Kunwar Singh

Delhi: Bakht Khan

Jhansi: Rani Lakshmi Bai

Cause of Failure of 1857 Revolt:

The lack of a common strategy and central organization was the main reason for the failure of the 1857 revolt. Other causes included:

Native Indian kings supported the British

Money lenders and landlords did not participate.

British soldiers were better equipped and organized rather than Indians.

About Rani Laxmibai:

Varanasi is the birthplace of Maharani Lakshmi Bai.

Samadhi of Maharani Laxmi Bai is situated in Gwalior.

Maharani Lakshmi Bai had combated in the last battle against Hugh Rose.

Kotah Ki Serai was the place where Rani of Jhansi, Lakshmi Bai was defeated by the British.

Other Important Facts Regarding the 1857 Revolt:

Lord Palmerston was the British Prime Minister during the revolt of 1857.

Lord Canning was the Governor General of India during the revolt of 1857.

Peel Commissions was constituted after the suppression of the Revolt of 1857 for the Army Reorganization. Gurkhas, Sikhs, and Punjabi were given preference to the British Army.

Lotus and Chapatis were the symbols of the 1857 freedom struggle. 

Awadh ( Oudh) provided the largest number of soldiers in the revolt.

Tatya Tope was the commander-in-chief of Nana Saheb and Azimullah Khan was advisor of Nana Saheb.

Bakht Khan was bestowed with the title of Sahebe-Alam Bahadur by Bahadur Shah during the uprising of 1857.

Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa defeated the joint army of the British and Jodhpur during the revolt of 1857.

Mirza Ghalib was a contemporary of the 1857 Revolt. He was from Agra.

The real name of Tatypa Tope was Ram Chandra Pandurang. 

Tatya Tope was betrayed by a "friend" captured and put to death by the British.

Scindias of Gwalior supported the British maximum during the 1857 Freedom Movement.

The educated middle class remained neutral in the revolt of 1857.

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