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Human Development Index ( HDI ) in Geography UPSC

Human Development Index

As in welfare and radical approaches emphasized to focus on the wellbeing of people rather than a quantitative measure. HDI is one of the indexes that measure the quality of life of the population. HDI is a comparative measurement tool that measures life expectancy, literacy, and standard of living worldwide. 
The following are included to measure the wellbeing of people:

  • Real freedom of people
  • Freedom to choose the profession, education, politics, etc
  • Economic opportunities
  • Free from any type of discrimination such as gender, race, caste, etc.
  • The standard of life includes access to basic amenities such as food, clean water, toilet, basic infrastructure, house, schools, hospitals, etc.

It was developed by Pakistani economics Mr. Mahbub ul Haq and later Indian economics Mr. Amartya Sen work on the capabilities and functioning of the HDI.
The human development index is the geometric mean of the three normalized indices. 

HDI =geometric mean of ( Life expectancy index, education index, income index)

As of now, HDI is being published by the UNDP ( United Nations Development Programme). In 2018, HDI Ranking are:
  • 1st: Norway
  • 2nd: Switzerland
  • 3rd: Australia 
  • 130: India,  HDI values: 0.640

India performance in HDI

HDI values in India are not uniformly in all-region. The following characteristics are:
  • Kerala ranks first in the Indian state having 0.784 HDI values which are higher than Mexican HDI values.
  • Bihar rank last in the Indian state having 0.566 which is equivalent to Pakistani HDI values.

Limitation of HDI

  • It does not include the women empowerment 
  • Public Security and Crime not included
  • Gender discrimination, racial discrimination, etc not included

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