Search Post on this Blog


Summary Notes

Any object or substance is a resource if that has usability or utility to humans.

  • All the resources have some value, utility, or usability.
  • All the resources satisfy some kinds of human needs.

It means exclusive right over any ideas or invention.

It is the application of the latest knowledge and skill in doing or making things.

Time and technology are two important facts that can changes substance into resources. But other factors such as people, their ideas, knowledge, invention, and discoveries also led to the creation of more resources.

Types of resources:

  • Natural resources
  • Human-made
  • Human

Natural resources:
The resources which come from nature that we can use without much modification. For example, the air we breathe, water in rivers and lakes, soils, and minerals.

Natural resources can be further classified:

Depending upon their level of development and use:
It can be classified into :

  • Origin
  • Stock
  • Distribution

On the basis of development and Use:
It can be classified into:

  • Actual resources
  • Potential resources

 Actual resources:
Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known and presently we are using them. For example, Coal, and petroleum in West Asia.

Potential resources:
Those resources whose entire quantity may not be known and not used at present. These resources can be used in the future.
For example,

  • high-speed winds were potential resources 200 years ago.
  • Uranium found in Ladakh is an example of potential resources that could be used future.

Based on the origin:

  • Abiotic
  • Biotic

Abiotic are non-living resources such as soil, rocks, minerals, air, etc.

Living resources such as plants and animals are called biotic resources.

Based on the Stock:

  • Renewable
  • Non-renewable.

Renewable resources:

  • The resource gets renewed quickly.
  • Some of these resources are unlimited and are not affected by human activities. For example, Solar, Wind.
  • But careless use of renewable energy such as water, soils, and forest; can affect the stock.

Non-renewable resources:
Non-renewable resources are those which have a limited stock; once stocks are exhausted, they may take thousands of years to be renewed. For example, coals, petroleum, etc

On the basis of their distributions:

  • Ubiquitous
  • Localized

Resources that are found everywhere like air, water, etc.

Those resources are found in a certain place like copper, iron, coal, etc.

The distribution of natural resources is not equal and it depends on a number of physical factors such as Terrain, Climate, and altitude.

Human Made resources:
Sometimes, natural substances become resources only when their original form has been changed. For example, roads, buildings, bridges, machinery, and vehicles.

Human Resources
Human resources refer to the number( quantity) and ability (physical and mental) of the people; that help transform physical materials into valuable resources.
Education and health are the two tools to make people valuable resources.

Education includes:

  • Knowledge
  • Skill
  • Technology


What is human resources development?
Improving the quality of people's skills so that they are able to create more resources is known as human resources development.

What is Sustainable development:
Carefully utilizing resources so that they fulfill the present requirement and also take care of future generation requirements, is called sustainable development.
The following are some principles of sustainable development:

  • Respect and care for all forms of life
  • Improve the quality of human life
  • Conserve the earth's diversity
  • Minimize the depletion of natural resources
  • Change the personal attitudes and all action should be environment-friendly
  • Enable communities to care for their own environment.


Q1. Why are resources distributed unequally over the earth?
The distribution of resources is dependent on many factors like climate, terrain, altitude, types of rocks, and insolation. These factors are not uniform all over the earth, hence resources are also not equally distributed over the earth.

Q2. What is resource conservation?
Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource conservation.

Q3. Why are human resources important?
Human changes physical material to valuable by/her knowledge and skill, hence human resources are the most valuable resources in the country.

Q4. What is sustainable development?
Carefully utilizing resources so that they fulfill the present requirement and also take care of future generation requirements, is called sustainable development.

Try to solve the following question:

  • Identify the importance of biotic resource regions of India and highlight their problems. ( UPSC 2016,250 words, 20 marks)
  • Evaluate the impact of technology on resource utilization in India. (UPSC 2016, 200 words, 15 marks)

You may like also:

Next Post »