The World Population Distribution Density and Growth

Summary Notes:

The pattern of Population Distribution in the world:



  • 90 % of the world population lives in 10 % of the land surface.
  • The 10 most populated countries of word contribute 60 % of the world population.
  • 6 out of 10 most populous countries are located in Asia. 6 countries in Asia in population decreasing order are as below:
    • China
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Pakistan
    • Bangladesh
    • Russia
  • In South America: Brazil is the most populous country
  • In North America: USA is the most populous country
  • In Africa: Nigeria is the most populous country
  • In Europe: Germany is the most populous country
  • In Asia: China is the most populous country



The population size on continent wise:



  • Asia: 60 %
  • Africa: 17 %
  • Europe: 9.7 %
  • Latin America and the Caribbean: 8.5 %
  • North America: 4.8 %


The density of Population:

Each unit of land has a certain limited capacity to support such as food, cloths. The density of the population gives us details about the dependency of the population on land.


  • Density =Population/area in Square km.


Factor influencing the distribution of the population:



  • Geographical factors:
    • Availability of water: People prefer to settle where water is easily accessible
    • Landforms such as Plain, mountains, and plateaus. People prefer to live in the plains region.
    • Climate: Mild climate condition is preferable to live. People avoid living in harsh climates such as deserts and mountainous regions.
    • Soils: Fertile soil is preferable to people.
  • Economic Factors:
    • Minerals: Skilled and semi-skilled labor move to mine areas for employment and make it dense population regions.
    • Urbanization: City offers better education, jobs, health facilities, transport, and communication facilities and hence attract large number in migration.
    • Industrialization: Industrial belt region and a large number of industries provide job opportunities such as industries worker, shop keeper, bank employees, doctors, teachers, etc.
  • Social and cultural factors:
    •  The religious and cultural specific location attracts human settlement.



Population Growth:


Absolute growth:

It refers to changes in the population in particular geographical areas between two points of time.
For example, the Population of India in 2001 was 102.70 crores and in 2011, it was 122.02 crores. Population growth was 18.15 crore from 2001 to 2011.

The growth rate of population:

Change in population expressed in percentage.


  • Natural growth of population: Birth rate-death rate.
  • Actual population growth=(Birth rate + In Migration) -(Death rate + Out Migration)


Two types of growth:



If (Birth rate + In Migration) > (Death rate + Out Migration)
      Then Positive growth
Else
    Negative growth

Componentes of Population Changes:

There are three components:


  • Births
  • Death
  • Migration


Crude birth rate (CBR)= Number of live birth per year* 1000/mid year population of areas.


Crude death rate (CDR)= Number of death per year* 1000/mid year population of areas.


Migration:

The population move from a place of origin to the place of destination is called migration.

Migration may be:



  • Permanent
  • Temporary
  • Seasons
  • Rural to urban
  • Urban to urban
  • Rural to rural
  • Urban to rural


Immigration:

Migrants who move to a new geographic location is called immigration.

Emigration:

Migrants who move out of a geographical location are called emigration.

Influencing factors of Migration:

There are two sets of influencing factors of migration:

Push factors:

 Place of origin is less attractive; reasons for the same are:


  • Unemployment
  • Poor living standard
  • Political instability
  • Harsh climate
  • natural disaster
  • Epidemic
  • Social and economic backwardness


Pull Factors:

The place of destination seems more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like:


  • Better job opportunities
  • Better living condition
  • Peace and stability
  • Security of Life and property
  • Pleasant climate


Trends in Population Growth:



  • 10,000 BC : 5 millions
  • 1650 A.D: 500 million
  • 1804 A.D: 1 billion
  • 1927 A.D: 2 billion
  • 1974 A.D: 4 billion
  • 2025 A.D: 8 billion


We can see rapid population growth after 1600, because of the following reasons:



  • From 1600 to 1900, the age of European exploration, colonization, and settlement
  • During 1750, the Industrial revolution.
  • During 1850, the transportation revolution
  • During 1920, sanitation and medical development
  • During 1970, the biotechnology revolution
  • During 1990, Information and computer revolution




How Science and technology helped population growth?
  • The steam engine replaced human and animal energy in the agriculture field and industries. In the results, it increased agriculture and industrial production.
  • Improvement in medical facilities and sanitation decreased epidemics and other communicable diseases; at the results, it led to a rapid decline in death rate all over the world.


Spatial patterns of population change:
In developed countries, population growth is low as compare to developing countries.
Population growth is inversely proportional to economic development.

The growth rate of population from 2010 to 2015;
  • World: 1.2
  • Africa: 2.6
  • Oceania: 1.5
  • Latin America: 1.1
  • Asia: 1.0
  • North America: 0.8
  • Europe; 0.1

Impact on population change:
  • In the growing economy, a small increase in population Good sign. 
  • Population growth beyond a certain level creates problems such as the depletion of resources and pollution.
  • Population decline indicates the resources are declined and not sufficient to maintain such a large population.
  • Annual population growth in India 1.64 percentage.



Demographic transition theory: 

It can be used to describe the present population and predict the future population of any area.
As per the theory, the population of any region change from high death and high birth rate to low death and low birth rate as society progress from rural and illiterate to urban industrial and literate society. This change happens in stages and it is known as the demographic cycle.

Rural agrarian to urban industrial via demographic transition.
Three stages.
  • First; 
    • high birth and death rates. People reproduce more to compensate for death due to food shortage and epidemics.
    • Low population growth as birth rate - the death rate is low
    • People involved in agriculture where the large family is considered as an asset.
    • Low life expectancy
    • High illiterate
    • Low level of technology
  • Second stage:
    • At the beginning of the second stage, the fertility rate remains high but it decreases with time.
    • The sharp decline in mortality rate, due to improvement in sanitation and health facilities.
    • Overall high population addition due to large gap and birth and death rate.
  • In the last stage:
    • In this stage, both fertility and mortality rates get declined. Due to this, either population gets stable or grows slowly.
    • Family size is small due to high literacy, technological advancement, and urbanized. 

Population control measures:

Family planning:
It means spacing between two children or preventing the birth of children. Effective accessibility of family planning leads to limiting population growth and improving women's health.



Exercises

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of
population?
(a) Africa
(c) Asia
(b) South America 
(d) North America,
Answer: A ( 2.6 % per year)

(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of the sparse population?
(a) The Atacama 
(c) Equatorial region
(b) South-east Asia 
(d) Polar regions
Answer. B

(iii) Which one of the following is not a push factor?
(a) Water shortage 
(c) Unemployment
(b) Medical/educational facilities 
(d) Epidemics
Answer. B

(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact?
(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past
500 years.
(b) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.
(c) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition?
Answer. B and C are false.


2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of
the population.
Answer.
The following are geographical factors:
  • Water availability
  • Landforms
  • Climate
  • Soils


(ii) There are a number of areas with high population density in the world.
Why does this happen?
Answer:
Because of the following favorable condition are found there:
  • The abundance of water availability
  • Enough fertile land to support the large population
  • Favorable climate
  • Good employability opportunity
  • Political stability
  • Cultural and religious attractiveness
  • Highly technological advancement, urbanized, and industrialized area.


(iii) What are the three components of population change?
Answer.
The following are the three components:
  • Birth rate
  • Death Rate
  • Migration





3. Distinguish between:
(i) Birth rate and death rate.
Answer.
Birth rate = the number of lives birth per 1000 population a year in particular geographical areas.
Death rate = the number of death per 1000 population a year in particular geographical areas.

(ii) Push factors and pull factors of migration.
Answer.
Push factors:
 Place of origin is less attractive; reasons for the same are:

  • Unemployment
  • Poor living standard
  • Political instability
  • Harsh climate
  • natural disaster
  • Epidemic
  • Social and economic backwardness
Pull Factors:
The place of destination seems more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like:


  • Better job opportunities
  • Better living condition
  • Peace and stability
  • Security of Life and property
  • Pleasant climate


4. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population
in the world.
Answer.
Mainly three factors influence the distribution and density of population:
  • Geographical factors
    • Water availability
    • Soil fertility
    • Climate
    • Surface topography or type of landforms
  • Economic factors
    • Urbanization
    • Industrialization
    • Mining
  • Cultural and religious factors
    • Political stability
    • Cultural and religious attractions

(ii) Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.
Answer.
  • In the first stage: The following are the specification:
    • High birth rate and death rate
    • Agricultural society
    • Stable population
  • In the Second Stage:
    • Starting with a high birth rate and low death rate
    • High population growth ( both absolute and in percentage)
    • Developing a phase of economic
  • Third stage
    • Low birth rate and death rate
    • Either Stable population or slow growth of population
    • Highly literate, urbanized, and industrialized society.

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