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Present a critical evaluation of the welfare scheme of the tribal regions of India .| Indian Geography | UP PCS Optional Geography Mains Paper 2 2019

Present a critical evaluation of the welfare scheme of the tribal regions of India.
( UPPSC, UP PCS, 2019, 15 Marks)
भारत के जनजातीय क्षेत्रों की कुशल योजना का आलोचनात्मक मूल्यांकन प्रस्तुत कीजिये।


The primitive habitat of the land is called tribes and members of each tribe are united by kinship. They generally live in hilly areas, in the forest, and in remote locations.
The following are uniques features of Indian Tribes:

  • The culture of Tribes is different from the Mainstream society of India such as Hindus.
  • No caste-like system but some social and economic differences do exist.
  • They Practice Jhum cultivation or Slash and Burn cultivation. It is also called Beware in Madhya Pradesh.
  • They also practice hunting, gathering, and Nomadic practice.
  • They did not have written records but they preserve rich customs or oral tradition with them and they passed it from generation to generation.
Tribal Areas
As of now, tribal people are found everywhere in India except Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Chandigarh, and Puducherry.
A tribal welfare ministry is set up to develop tribal communities.
The following are welfare schemes for tribal areas:

TRIFED in 1987: 

  • TRIFED means " Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India" and it is for products made by tribal communities.
PESA act 1996:

  • Panchyatraj extension to scheduled areas.
Forest Right Acts - 2006:

  • Adequate ownership and power in the forest right.
Eklavya Model Residential Schools ( EMRS):
  • More than 400 EMRS will be set up by 2020 under the ministry of tribal affairs.
  • The objective is to enable them to avail reservations in high and professional jobs.
Van Dhan Vikas Kendra and Van bandhu Kalyan Yojana:
  • The mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Production ( MFP) through Minimum Support Price.
Establishing of Ashram Schools in tribal areas.

  • Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojna: it is for the holistic development of tribal people socially, economically, and culturally.

Evaluation of Welfare Scheme of tribal areas:

Financial Problems of Policies:
Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojna was started in 2014 for the holistic development of tribal areas, but financial allocation was only 100 and 200 crores for 2014-15 and 2015-16 respectively; that is very less to meet the objectives.

Literacy problems:
  • Despite the welfare scheme for the promotion of education such as the Eklavya school model; tribal students in primary school declined from 113.2 in 2013-14 to 109.4 in 2015-16.
  • The drop rate of tribal students is also at an alarming level.

Displacement problems:
  • Forest rights are provided to tribal people by Forest Rights Acts -2016, but realty mining in forest areas, dam building, and encroachment in forest land lead to a major displacement of the tribal population. 

Food and Nutrition problems:
Due to nutrition insecurity in tribal areas, the tribal population in India is lagging behind other social groups in various parameters such as:

  • Child Mortality rate
  • Infant Mortality
  • High anemia rate in women
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