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Discuss the Problems of Development disparity in India and suggest suitable measures for their alleviation.| Indian Geography | UP PCS Optional Geography Mains Paper 2 2019 |Geography optional notes

Discuss the Problems of Development disparity in India and suggest suitable measures for their alleviation.
( UPPSC, UP PCS, 2019, 15 Marks)
भारत में विकास विषमता की समस्याओं पर विवेचना कीजिये और उनके उपशमन के उपयुक्त  उपाय सुझाएं।


Development disparity means disparity in three main aspects of development namely economic development, human development, and agricultural development. 
Development is not equally spread in India spatially and socially, it varies from region to region and society to society. 
Social and geographical Variation of development can be seen in the following terms:

  • Per capita income, 
  • level of industrialization, 
  • Agriculture development,
  • Education and health facilities
  • Literacy and mortality rate

Problems of Development disparity in India

The following are the problems of development disparity:

  • Unplanned migration
  • Social tension
  • Conflict with local people
  • Unutilized vs over-utilized resources
  • Left wind extremists like problems in back word areas.
  • Political instability in backward areas.
  • The parallel government in the underdeveloped areas.
Measures for their alleviation of Development Disparity:
Development generally does not happen uniformly in all the regions. Despite having an abundance of regional resources, some region remains economic backward areas. This unequal development of regions leads planners to think about the spatial and social perspective of planning to reduce regional imbalances.
Target area planning is key for the alleviation of development disparity.

Target Area planning:
Target areas planning is done to take care of economically backward areas.
Again there are two approaches to target area planning:

  • Target Areas approach
  • Target groups approach

Target Areas approach:
Identification of economically backward areas and framing policy for target areas, the following are the examples of target areas approach:

  • Command areas developments
  • Drought Prone areas development
  • Desert Areas development
  • Hill Areas development
  • Tribal Areas Development
  • Coastal Areas Development
  • Plain Areas Development
  • Backward areas development

Target groups approach

Identification of economically backward social groups and framing policy for the socially backward groups to remove development disparity.

  • Policy for Small and Marginal Farmers
  • Policy for tribal Peoples
  • Policy for depressed class
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