UPPCS Geography Optional Syllabus


SECTION-A – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
 Geomorphology: 

  • Origin and structure of the Earth, 
  • Earth movements, 
  • Plate tectonics, and Mountain Building, 
  • Isostasy; 
  • Vulcansim; 
  • Weathering and Erosion; 
  • The cycle of Erosion, 
  • Evolution of landforms; fluvial, glacial, aeolian, marine, and karst 
  • Rejuvenation and Polycyclic 
  • Landform features. 

Climatology:

  • Composition and structure of Atmosphere, 
  • Insolation and Heat Budget 
  • Atmospheric pressure and winds;
  • Moisture and Precipitation; 
  • Air masses and fronts
  • Cyclone: Origine, Movements, and associated weather;
  • Classification of world climates Koppen and Thonthwaite.

Oceanography: 

  • Configuration of Ocean floor, 
  • Salinity, Ocean Currents, Tides 
  • Ocean deposits and coral reefs. 

Soil and Vegetation: 

  • Soils-genesis;
  • classification and world distribution, 
  • Soil Vegetation Symbiosis; 
  • Biotic Communities and Succession. 

Ecosystem:

  • Concept of Ecosystem, structure, and functioning of the Ecosystem,
  • Types of Ecosystem; 
  • Major Biomes; 
  • Man's impact on the Ecosystem and Global Ecological issues. 



HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 

Evolution of Geographical Thought: 

  • Contributions of Indian, German, French, British, and Soviet Geographers; 
  • Traditional Paradigms:- Determinism, Possiblism, Regionalism,
  • Contemporary Paradigms of Geography – positivism and quantitative revolution, models, and systems in Geography, 
  • Recent trends in geographic thought with special reference to behavioral, radical, humanism, 
  • post-modernism in Feminism and ecological paradigms.

Human Geography: 

  • Human habitat in major natural regions; 
  • The emergence of Man and Races of Mankind; 
  • Cultural evolution and stages; 
  • Major cultural realms, Growth, and Distribution of population;
  • International migration; 
  • Demographic Transition and contemporary population problems. 

 Settlement Geography: 

  • Concept of Settlement Geography; 
  • Rural settlements – Nature; Origin, Types, and patterns; 
  • Urban settlements: Origin, Patterns, Processes, and consequences, 
  • Central place theory; 
  • Classification of towns; 
  • Hierarchy of Urban Centres, Morphology of Towns; 
  • Rural-Urban nexus, Umiand, and urban fringes; 
  • Futuristic trends.

Economic Geography: 

  • Fundamental concepts; 
  • Concepts of Resources: Classification, Conservation, and Management;
  • Nature and Types of Agriculture, 
  • Agricultural land use; 
  • Location theories; 
  • World Agricultural Regions; 
  • Major crops; 
  • Mineral and Power Resources; Occurrence, Reserve, Utilization and Production patterns; 
  • World Energy crisis and search for alternatives; 
  • Industries- Theories of Industrial location, 
  • Major industrial regions; 
  • Major Industries- 
    • Iron and Steel.
    • Paper and Textiles. 
    • Petro- Chemicals, 
    • Automobiles,
    • Shipbuilding- their location patterns, 
  • International Trade, Trade Blocks, Trade routes; 
  • Ports and Global Trade Centres; 
  • Globalization and World Economic Development Patterns, 
  • Concepts and approaches to Sustainable Development. 

Political Geography: 

  • Concept of Nation and State; Frontiers, Boundaries, and Buffer zones; 
  • Concepts of Heartland and Rimland; 
  • Federalism, 
  • Contemporary world Geopolitical issues.



 PAPER-II (GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA) 

SECTION (A) PHYSICAL and HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Physical Features:

  • Geological systems and structure: Relief and drainage, soils and natural vegetation;
  • Soil degradation and deforestation, 
  • Origin, and mechanism of Indian Monsoon, 
  • the climatic region,
  •  physiographic region.

Biotic Resources

  • Wild Life, National Park, Sanctuaries,
  •  biospheric reserves,
  •  biodiversity hot-spots.

Subsection-3

  • Wetland, 
  • tourism- resource and economy,
  • natural hazards, 
  • disasters and management, 
  • environmental issues.

Population and Settlements

  • Distribution and growth, 
  • structural characteristics of the population, 
  • Rural Settlements- types, patterns, and morphology, 
  • Urban settlement- criteria and classification of urban Settlement, hierarchy and Umland, Urbanisation, 
  • Urban Policy, 
  • Urban Planning, the role of Small Towns, 
  • Smart City and Smart Village. 


Political organization: 

  • a historical perspective on unity and diversity
  •  states reorganization;
  •  regional consciousness and national integration,
  •  the geographical basis of Centre-State relations,
  •  International Boundaries of India and related geopolitical issues, 
  • India and the geopolitics of the Indian Ocean, India, and the SAARC. 



SECTION (B) 
ECONOMIC and  REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 

 Agriculture: 

  • Salient Features of Indian Agriculture, 
  • the problem of wastelands and their reclamation, 
  • cropping patterns and intensity,
  •  agricultural efficiency and productivity, 
  • the impact of the green revolution, 
  • agricultural regions, 
  • agro-ecological regions,
  •  landholding patterns,
  • land reforms,
  • crop combination regions,
  • modernization of agriculture and agricultural planning. 

Resources:

  • Distributional patterns and reserves and production trends, 
  • the complementarity of minerals, 
  • energy resources- coal,
  • petroleum, hydro-power, multipurpose river valley projects, energy crisis and search for alternatives, marine resources, and biotic resources.

Industries:

  • Industrial development,
  • major Industries- Iron and Steel, Textiles, Paper, Cement, Fertilizers, Sugar, and Petro-Chemicals, 
  • Industrial Complexes and regions,
  •  industrial policy. 


Transport and Trade:

  • Railways and Roads networks, 
  • problems and prospects of Civil Aviation and Water Transport; 
  • Inter-Regional Trade International trade,
  • Major Ports and Trade Centres.

Regional Development and Planning: 


  • Problems with regional development and planning strategies, 
  • multi-level planning, 
  • planning regions, 
  • planning for Metropolitan, Tribal, Hilly, Drought-prone Regions, 
  • Watershed Management, 
  • Regional disparities in development,
  • Five Year Plans and planning for sustainable development.
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