Administration During Mughal UPSC[Prelims]

 Administration During Mughal:

  • Akbar follows the Shershah Suri division of the Empire.
  • The division of the empire was like the:
    • Empire --> Subas---> Sarkar ---> Paraganas ---> Village
  • There were 15 Subas during Akbar and it had been increased to 20 Subas during Aurangzeb.
  • Head of Subas was called Subedar.

Mansabdari system:

  • Every officer had some rank which varies from 10 to 5000.
  • Rank was decided by Zat and Sawar.
  • Zat means person status.
  • Sawar means the number of Cavalrymen requires to maintain.
  • Mansab rank was not hereditary.

Revenue system:

  • It is also called Zabt or Bandobast.
  • The revenue minister is called Raja Todarmal.

Lands were divided based on fertility, the following are the main categories of land.

  • Polaj: 
    • Every year cultivable land. It is the most fertile land.
  • Parati; 
    • One in two years of cultivation.
  • Chachar: 
    • Once in three to four years.
  • Banjar: 
    • Once in five or more years.

Jagirdari System:

The land was categorized into two categories:

  • Khalisa
  • Jagir

Revenue from Khalisa land directly goes to the Royal family.

Revenue from Jagir land directly goes to Jagirdar.

The following are important post and their work during Mughal:

  • Diwan or Wazir: 
    • Chief Minister
  • Mir Bakshi: 
    • Military pay and account.
  • Sadr: 
    • Head of religious donation.
  • Subedar: 
    • Head of Subas
  • Bakshi: 
    • Provincial paymaster.
  • Fauzdar: 
    • The administrative head of the district.
  • Kotwal: 
    • Executive and ministerial duties.

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