Which factors have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the states in India?

 Question.

Which factors have caused spatial variations in the levels of Human Development among the states in India? ( NCERT class 12 geography)

Answer.

Human development is a process of enlarging human choices, quality of life, and increasing human capabilities. Human development is done by providing literacy, good income, and healthy longevity.

There is spatial variation in the levels of human development between states in India. This is due to two main factors:

  • Variation in literacy rate.
  • Variation in the level of socio-economic development.

According to the 2011 census:

  • In general, the level of human development in northern India, except Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, is lower than that of southern states due to low literacy rates and low levels of economic development. For example, Chhattisgarh (23), Orissa (22), Bihar (21), and Madhya Pradesh (20) have the lowest human development ranks in India.
  • Despite having a low literacy rate and a low sex ratio, states like Delhi (2), Himachal Pradesh (3), Punjab (5), Maharashtra (7), and Haryana (9) have high levels of human development because of their high economic development.
  • The southern states performed well in terms of human development due to the high literacy rate and high economic development. For Example, Kerala(1), Goa(4), and Tamil Nadu(8).
  • It is because of the high literacy rate that the entire northeastern states except Assam have high human development (Rank 6).

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