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Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities, especially in the developed countries of the world.


Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities, especially in the developed countries of the world. 

(Class 12 geography, Fundamentals of Human GeographyChapter-6. Secondary Activities )


Modern industrial activities are the most complex and capital-intensive industries in which large-scale industrial production is carried out by the most sophisticated methods. Such industrial activities are mostly carried out in the developed countries of the regions of North America, Europe, and Asia.

Some examples of modern industries are the heavy machinery industry, electrical and electronics industry, automobile industry, defense machinery industry, and space industry.

Following are the main trends of modern industrial activities with respect to the industries of developed countries of the world:

Initially, in developed countries, major industries like iron and steel industries were established in the source area of ​​raw material to save the transportation cost of heavy raw material, but now due to increasing pollution and shortage of raw material in the source area, Such industries are being set up near transport lines, market areas, and at a cheaper source of labor.

For example:

Germany's Ruhr coalfield used to produce 80% of the total steel production in the country, but now due to the increasing pollution and industrial waste in the region, and the lack of iron ore in the region, the industry present in this area is reducing its production.

In the United States too, the Appalachian region (Pittsburgh) used to be home to large steel plants, but now industries have moved to the southern states of the United States as the region has become the "rust bowl" of the United States.

Developed countries have invested heavily in modern technological developments to make industrial activities eco-friendly and less polluting.

Earlier developed countries like Germany focused on the development of labor-intensive industries such as the textile industry in their own countries, but now such industries have either been shifted to countries with cheap sources of labor such as Bangladesh and Vietnam or they have invested heavily in automation and mechanization.

Even within developed countries, most modern industries are being set up in areas that are connected by means of rapid transport.

High-skilled workers ( white collar) outnumber the actual production workers (blue collar) in modern industrial activities in most developed countries.

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