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How do industries pollute the environment?


How do industries pollute the environment?

( Chapter - 6 Manufacturing Industries, Cass X NCERT Contemporary India -II )


Industries contribute a lot to the development of the country and society but mostly harm our environment by polluting it.

Industries pollute every component of the environment. Industries are responsible for four types of environmental pollution mainly air, water, soil, and noise pollution.

Air pollution:

The high proportion of unwanted gases in the atmosphere creates air pollution. Industries pollute the air in the following ways:

Smoke comes out from the chemical industry, paper industry, brick kilns, refineries, and smelting plants. Smoke pollutes the air.

Thermal power plants emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide.

Cement industries add dust and fine particles to the atmosphere.

Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings, and both biotic and abiotic components of the environment.

Water Pollution:

Industries pollute water in the following ways:

Paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, and electroplating industries discharge organic and inorganic industrial wastes into water bodies and cause water pollution.

Detergents, acids, salts, lead, mercury, pesticides, fertilizers, carbon, plastics, and rubber along with synthetic chemical industries are the major pollutants that pollute water bodies.

Thermal power plants and cement industries emit fly ash into the atmosphere which pollutes water bodies.

Iron and steel slag from iron and steel plants are also solid waste pollutants in water bodies.

Industries pollute water bodies through thermal pollution. Thermal pollution in water bodies occurs when hot water from industries drains into rivers and ponds before cooling down, resulting in a shock to aquatic organisms.

Noise pollution:

Industries cause noise pollution in the following ways:

Noise is unwanted sound in the environment.

Industrial processing, construction, machinery, factory equipment, generators, and electric drills create a lot of noise in the environment.

Noise pollution causes irritability, anger, loss of hearing, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

Soil Pollution:

The dumping of industrial waste on the land causes land and soil pollution.

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