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Notes Decline of the Mughal Empire [ Source-BIPIN CHANDRA Modern India Book, and other sources]

Short Notes on The Decline of the Mughal Empire:

In the Year 1705, Aurangzeb died in Ahmednagar [Maharashtra]. After the death of Aurangzeb, there was a fight among his three children, and Bahadur Shah become victorious. 

The following are in chronological order of successor of the Mughal throne after the death of Aurangzeb-

Bahadur Shah I (1707 AD-1712 AD)

Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)

Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719)

Rafi ud-Darajat (1719 AD)

Rafi Ud-Daulat ( 1719 AD)

Muhammad Shah Rangila (1719-1748)

Ahmad Shah Bahadur(1748-1754)

Alamgir II(1754-1759)

Shah Alam-II(1759-1806)

Akbar II(1806-1837)

Bahdur Shah-II(1837-1858)

Sayyid brothers were also called "Kingmakers" as they made Farrukhsiyar, Rafi ud-Darajat, and Rafi Ud-Daulat kings; they acted as puppets of the Sayyid brothers. 

Nadir Shah invaded Delhi when Muhammad Shah was in power in 1739 AD. 

Reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire:

The following are the main reasons for the decline of the Mughal empire after Aurangzeb rein-

Aurangzeb's religious orthodoxy and intolerance towards Hindus.

Aurangzeb's conflict with some of the Rajput states and Marathas led to economic bankruptcy.

Jagirdari crisis: After Aurangzeb reins, there was a shortage of land for more Jagirdar. 

The expansionist policy of Aurangzeb lacked political, social, and economic insight. As Aurangzeb tried to centralize an empire comprises of the whole Indian subcontinent that spread from Kabul to Myanmar and the Himalayas to the Kanyakumari coast. However that time there was not have available technology for effective governance and control of such a large empire. To govern such an empire required integrated communication, transportation, governance, and defense, which were not available at that time, which led to misgovernance, corruption, and disintegration of the empire. 

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