Search Post on this Blog

Critically examine the challenges of conservation of wildlife. । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2020


Critically examine the challenges of conservation of wildlife.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2020)


India had made early interventions regarding the exploitation of natural resources like forests, water, air, soils, and wildlife by bringing many policies and initiatives like the Wildlife protection act of 1972 and the creation of 18 Biosphere reserves in the country. However, the conservation of wildlife has been a challenging task. Here are some critical challenges regarding the conservation of wildlife.

Habitat loss and Fragmentation; 

Human activities such as agriculture, mining, infrastructure development( Roads, highways, railways), deforestation, urbanization, and industrial development lead to habitat loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitat. That creates hurdles in the natural migration of wildlife, food insufficiency, and create human-animal conflict.


Poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trade;

The demand for wildlife products like ivory, tiger parts, animal skin, elephant teeth, etc drives illegal hunting and smuggling. Poaching and illegal wildlife trade remain major challenges in the conservation of wildlife. Weak law enforcement, corruption, and inadequate penalties contribute to this problem.

Human Population Explosion; 

As the human population expands, encroachment into wildlife increases. As a result, there is conflict arises between humans and wildlife. Crop damage, livestock prey, and attack on humans by wildlife species pose challenges in keeping a balance between human needs and wildlife conservation.


Invasive species; 

The introduction of invasive species in the ecosystem poses a threat to native wildlife by outcompeting them for resources, altering the ecosystem, and causing ecological imbalance.

Climate changes;

Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and extreme weather events can disturb the ecosystem, and increase stress to wildlife. Climate change increases vulnerability and major challenges to wildlife conservation.

Lack of public awareness and participation

There is a lack of ecological awareness in the general public about the importance of wildlife conservation.  Public participation, ecological education, and public participation in conservation are crucial for creating a collective responsibility regarding the conservation of wildlife.

Addressing these challenges requires, a multi-faceted approach which includes-

Strengthening policies; It requires strengthening wildlife protection law and imposing Stricker penalties for wildlife losses.

Habitat protection; Habitat protection efforts are needed like expanding protected areas and promoting natural corridors for wildlife migration. It would mitigate human and wildlife conflicts.

Sustainable livelihood; Encouraging sustainable livelihood options to local communities would reduce the illegal poaching of wildlife, and also reduces their dependence on natural resources.

Participation of local communities and NGOs; Collaboration between government agencies, NGOs, local communities, and international environmental organizations are needed to foster partnership and share knowledge and resources.

Incorporating climate change; There is a need for the adaption of climate change strategies into conservation planning and management.

Addressing these challenges is crucial for successful conservation of wildlife, and for ensuring a sustainable future for wildlife.

You may like also:

Next Post »