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Role of Prime Minister and Prime Minister's Office in India UPSC | Indian Polity | General Studies II

 Table of Contents:

  • Prime Minister Post in the Indian constitution
  • Role of Prime Minister's Office ( PMO) in Government Functioning
  • Discuss the emerging role of the Prime Minister in India.

Prime Minister Post in the Indian constitution:

The Prime Minister's post in the Indian constitution is not explicitly defined as a separate entity. Instead, it is derived from Article 74 and Article 75 of the Indian Constitution:

Article 74: 

Article 74 deals with the Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President. It states that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise their functions in accordance with this advice. The Prime Minister is typically the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament).

Article 75: 

Article 75 elaborates on the appointment and duties of the Prime Minister. It states that the Prime Minister is appointed by the President and is usually the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister recommends other ministers to the President, allocates their portfolios, and presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers.

So, while the Indian Constitution does not specifically mention the title "Prime Minister," these Articles establish the role and authority of the Prime Minister within the government structure.

Role of Prime Minister's Office ( PMO) in Government Functioning :

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) in the Indian government is the central executive office of the Prime Minister of India. It serves as the hub of administrative and policy-making activities for the Prime Minister. 

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) plays a crucial role in coordinating and implementing the government's policies and decisions.

The following are key functions and responsibilities of the Prime Minister's Office:

Advisory Role: 

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) provides advice and recommendations to the Prime Minister on various matters, including policy issues, domestic and international affairs, and matters of national importance.


The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) acts as a coordinating body between various government ministries and departments, ensuring the smooth implementation of government policies.

Crisis Management: 

During times of national crises or emergencies, the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) plays a central role in coordinating government responses and decision-making.

Foreign Affairs: 

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) plays a key role in formulating and executing India's foreign policy, often working closely with the Ministry of External Affairs.


The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) assists the Prime Minister in the selection and appointment of key government officials, including Cabinet ministers and senior bureaucrats.


The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) serves as the primary channel of communication between the Prime Minister and the President of India, as well as with other government officials and international leaders.

Policy Formulation: 

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) helps in the formulation of government policies and ensures that they align with the Prime Minister's vision and priorities.

In summary, The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is staffed by a team of civil servants, advisors, and experts who support the Prime Minister in carrying out their duties effectively. It is located in New Delhi and is a critical part of the Indian government's administrative machinery.


Discuss the emerging role of the Prime Minister in India.

( UPPSC Mains General Studies-II/GS-2 2019)


The role of the Prime Minister in India has evolved significantly since the country's independence in 1947. 

Over the years, the Prime Minister has emerged as the central figure in Indian politics, holding substantial power and influence in various aspects of governance and policy-making. 

The emerging role of the Prime Minister in India can be understood through the following key points:

Executive Authority: 

The Prime Minister is the head of the Central Government and exercises executive authority over the Council of Ministers. They play a pivotal role in decision-making on various policy matters, administrative issues, and matters of national importance.

Policy Formulation and Direction: 

The Prime Minister sets the policy direction of the government and provides vision and direction for the nation. They are actively involved in formulating key policies and initiatives in various sectors, ranging from economic development to foreign affairs.

Crisis Management and Decision Making: 

The Prime Minister plays a critical role in managing crises and making crucial decisions during emergencies or challenging situations, such as natural disasters or security threats.

International Diplomacy: 

The Prime Minister represents India on the global stage and engages in international diplomacy. They participate in bilateral and multilateral meetings, addressing global issues, and fostering international relations.

Parliamentary Leadership: 

The Prime Minister leads the ruling party or coalition in Parliament, guiding legislative agendas and coordinating with Members of Parliament to ensure the smooth functioning of the government.

Public Communication and Image Building: 

The Prime Minister is a prominent public figure and serves as a spokesperson for the government. They communicate with the public through speeches, press conferences, and social media, shaping public opinion and building a positive image of the government.

Coordination with States: 

The Prime Minister works closely with Chief Ministers and state governments to foster cooperative federalism and ensure the effective implementation of central government schemes at the state level.

Economic Policy and Development Initiatives: 

The Prime Minister influences economic policy and development initiatives, promoting growth and addressing socio-economic challenges.

Defense and Security: 

The Prime Minister plays a critical role in national security and defense matters, overseeing the armed forces and strategic decision-making.

Supervision of Ministries: 

The Prime Minister supervises the functioning of various ministries and ensures coordination among different departments to achieve the government's objectives.

Party Leadership: 

In the case of the ruling party, the Prime Minister often holds a significant leadership role in shaping the party's direction and strategies.

It is important to note that the role of the Prime Minister is not explicitly defined in the Indian Constitution. It has evolved over time based on political practices, conventions, and the individual leadership style of each Prime Minister. 

A strong Prime Minister can provide stability and decisive leadership, but it is essential to strike a balance between strong leadership and institutional to maintain a vibrant democracy.

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