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History, Art, and Culture of Uttar Pradesh | Indian History | General Studies I

 Table of Contents:

  • Throw light on the nature Renaissance in Uttar Pradesh in the 19th century. ( UPPSC 2022)
  • Mention various festivals which are celebrated in Uttar Pradesh. ( UPPSC 2022)
  • Presenting the details of the popular folk songs in the "Purvanchal region" of Uttar Pradesh. Mention their silent features. ( UPPSC 2022)
  • Evaluate the contribution of revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh in the Indian freedom struggle. ( UPPSC 2021)


Throw light on the nature Renaissance in Uttar Pradesh in the 19th century.

 (UPPSC Mains General Studies-I/GS- 2022)


Indian Renaissance is also known as the socio-intellectual revolution, it was aimed at changes in science, literature, social norms, and philosophy. Important Indian Renaissance and religious and social reformers included Swami Vivekananda, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Jyotirao Govindrao Phule, and many more.

The Renaissance in Uttar Pradesh during the 19th century was a cultural and intellectual awakening characterized by a resurgence of art, literature, social reform, and a rediscovery of India's heritage. The presence of British colonial rule in Uttar Pradesh made exposure to Western education and ideas influenced the intellectual climate of the time.

Here are some key aspects of the nature of the Renaissance in Uttar Pradesh in the 19th century:

Literary Revival: 

The 19th-century Uttar Pradesh Renaissance saw the flourishing of literary movements in various languages, including Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. Prominent poets and writers like Mirza Ghalib, Munshi Premchand, and Bhartendu Harishchandra contributed significantly to literature.

Hindi Literature: 

Bhartendu Harishchandra, often called the "Father of Modern Hindi Literature," played a crucial role in promoting Hindi as a literary language.

Urdu Poetry: 

Mirza Ghalib, one of the most celebrated Urdu poets, created timeless works that continue to be revered today, contributing to the rich tradition of Urdu poetry.

Cultural Revival: 

There was a renewed interest in India's classical heritage. Sanskrit literature and ancient Indian philosophy were studied and appreciated, leading to a rediscovery of Indian cultural roots.

Political Awakening: 

The 19th century also saw the emergence of political awareness and nationalist sentiments. Leaders like Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and Kunwar Singh played significant roles in the First War of Independence in 1857.

Artistic Expression: 

The period saw advancements in various art forms, including painting and music. The Lucknow school of painting, known for its intricate details and refinement, gained prominence.

Educational Reforms: 

Initiatives were taken to establish schools and colleges, promoting education and intellectual growth.

In summary, the Renaissance in Uttar Pradesh during the 19th century was a multifaceted cultural and intellectual movement that contributed to the rejuvenation of literature, arts, and social reforms. It marked a significant chapter in the cultural history of the region and laid the foundation for modern India's intellectual and artistic heritage.


Mention various festivals which are celebrated in Uttar Pradesh.

 (UPPSC Mains General Studies-I/GS- 2022)


Uttar Pradesh is a diverse culture and rich heritage state in India, which celebrates a wide array of festivals throughout the year. 

The following are some of the prominent festivals celebrated in Uttar Pradesh:


The Festival of Lights, Diwali, is celebrated with great enthusiasm in Uttar Pradesh. Homes and streets are illuminated with lamps, and people exchange sweets and gifts. Ayodhya, the birthplace of Lord Rama, is particularly famous for its grand Diwali celebrations.


Holi, the Festival of Colors, is one of the most vibrant festivals in Uttar Pradesh. People play with colored powders and water, sing and dance, and enjoy festive sweets. Mathura and Vrindavan, associated with Lord Krishna, are renowned for their Holi celebrations.


The birth of Lord Krishna is celebrated with great fervor in Mathura and Vrindavan. Devotees fast, sing devotional songs and reenact episodes from Krishna's life.


Muslims in Uttar Pradesh celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha with special prayers, feasts, and the exchange of gifts. 

Navratri and Durga Puja: 

Navratri, a nine-night festival dedicated to Goddess Durga, is celebrated with devotional songs and dance (Garba and Dandiya). Durga Puja is also observed with grand processions and idol immersions.


Devotees of Lord Shiva observe Mahashivaratri with fasting, night-long vigils, and visits to Shiva temples, especially in cities like Varanasi.

Raksha Bandhan: 

Raksha Bandhan festival celebrates the bond between brothers and sisters. Sisters tie a rakhi (a decorative thread) on their brother's wrists, and brothers offer gifts in return.

Makar Sankranti: 

Makar Sankranti is celebrated as a harvest festival. Makar Sankranti involves kite flying, feasting on traditional sweets like til-gud, and taking holy dips in rivers, especially at Prayagraj during the Kumbh Mela.

Ganga Dussehra: 

This festival celebrates the descent of the Ganges River to Earth. Devotees take holy dips in the Ganges and perform rituals on its banks, particularly in places like Varanasi and Prayagraj.

These are just a few examples of the many festivals celebrated in Uttar Pradesh, reflecting the state's cultural diversity and deep-rooted traditions. Each festival brings communities together and adds vibrancy to the social fabric of the state.


Presenting the details of the popular folk songs in the "Purvanchal region" of Uttar Pradesh. Mention their silent features.

 (UPPSC Mains General Studies-I/GS- 2022)


The Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh is located in the eastern part of the state. SOnbhadra, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Praygraj, Balia, Sidharth Nagar, Deorai, Mau, Kushi Nagar, Jaunpur, Ghazipur, and Gorakhpur are some important districts of the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh.

The Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh is known for its rich cultural heritage, including a vibrant tradition of folk songs. Purvanchal folk songs reflect the diverse culture, traditions, and rural life of the region. 

Folk Songs encompasses a wide range of songs that reflect the daily life, customs, and social issues of the region. These songs can cover a variety of themes, from agriculture to love stories. Folk Songs are diverse in theme and style. They often feature simple, repetitive tunes and lyrics that are easy to sing along with.

The following are some popular types of folk songs found in Purvanchal along with their salient features:

Sohar Songs:

Theme: Sohar songs are sung during childbirth and celebrate the arrival of a newborn baby. They offer blessings and good wishes to the mother and child.

Features: Sohar songs are typically melodious and have a lullaby-like quality. They are accompanied by simple musical instruments like the dholak and manjeera.

Kajari Songs:

Theme: Kajari songs are associated with the monsoon season and express the pangs of separation in the context of lovers or families separated due to work.

Features: Kajari songs have a melancholic and poetic tone. They often describe the beauty of the rainy season and the yearning for loved ones.

Jhula Songs:

Theme: Jhula songs are sung during the swing festival, where idols of deities are placed on swings and devotees sing and dance around them.

Features: These songs are lively and rhythmic, accompanied by traditional instruments like the dholak and harmonium. They invoke a festive atmosphere.

Chaita Songs:

Theme: Chaita songs are associated with the Chaitra month (spring) and the festival of Chaiti. They often depict the beauty of nature and the playful interactions of lovers.

Features: Chaita songs are characterized by a lively and upbeat tempo. They are often accompanied by dance and feature the use of traditional instruments.

Kaharwa Songs:

Theme: Kaharwa songs are sung during festivals like Holi and describe the playful and colorful aspects of these celebrations.

Features: These songs have a lively and rhythmic melody, and they are accompanied by traditional percussion instruments like the dholak and tabla.

Birha Songs:

Theme: Birha songs are sung to express the emotions of separation and longing. They often narrate tragic love stories or tales of migration.

Features: Birha songs have a poignant and emotional tone. The singers convey deep feelings of sorrow and nostalgia.

Purvanchal folk songs are characterized by their simplicity, melodic tunes, and their close connection to the region's cultural and agricultural traditions. They are an integral part of social gatherings, festivals, and rituals in the Purvanchal region, preserving the cultural heritage of the area.


Evaluate the contribution of revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh in the Indian freedom struggle.

 (UPPSC Mains General Studies-I/GS- 2021)


The revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh made significant contributions to the Indian freedom struggle by adopting a more radical and militant approach to achieve independence from British colonial rule. 

The following are some key contributions of the revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh in Indian freedom struggle:

Kakori Conspiracy (1925): 

One of the most famous incidents involving Uttar Pradesh revolutionaries was the Kakori Conspiracy. It was led by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaq Ullah Khan, and others. They executed a daring train robbery at Kakori to fund their revolutionary activities. This event not only drew attention to their cause but also inspired many Indians to join the struggle.

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association ( HSRA ): 

The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was a prominent revolutionary organization with a strong presence in Uttar Pradesh. Leaders like Chandrasekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, and Rajguru were associated with it. They advocated for armed resistance against the British and carried out several acts of violence against colonial officials.

Aligarh Movement: 

Aligarh, in Uttar Pradesh, was a hub of revolutionary activities. Maulana Hasrat Mohani, a freedom fighter from Aligarh, played a crucial role in promoting the cause of independence through his writings and speeches.

Jhansi and Awadh Uprisings: 

Regions like Jhansi and Awadh witnessed local uprisings against British rule. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi became an iconic figure for her fierce resistance during the 1857 First War of Independence.

Kanpur Conspiracy (1924): 

Kanpur Conspiracy case, which involved leaders like Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi and Madan Mohan Malaviya. They were accused of planning anti-British activities, highlighting the widespread support for the revolutionary cause.

Sacrifices and Martyrdom: 

Many Uttar Pradesh revolutionaries, including  Ram Prasad Bismil, and others, made supreme sacrifices for the cause of freedom. 

Overall, the revolutionaries of Uttar Pradesh played a vital role in the Indian freedom struggle by advocating a more radical and militant approach. They added momentum to the broader movement for independence and contributed significantly to the eventual attainment of freedom in 1947.

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