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Important Notes on Vitamins, Minerals, and Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

 Short Notes on Vitamins, Minerals, and Vitamin Deficiency Disease;

Vitamins are organic substances whereas minerals are both organic and inorganic substances. Both [ vitamins and minerals] are essential for the overall growth of the human body. 

There are two types of vitamins:

Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin B and vitamin C are water-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins:  All vitamins except vitamin B and vitamin C are fat-soluble.

About Vitamin A:

The chemical name : Retinol:

Diseases: There are mainly two diseases caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, namely Night blindness [ Nyctalopia] and Keratomalacia/Xerophthalmia ( dryness on the outer layer of the eyeball).

Food sources of vitamin A: Carrots, broccoli, fish, egg, milk, green leaf vegetables, etc.

About Vitamin B Group:

The following are the chemical and scientific names of the vitamin B group complex:

B1: Thiamine [ deficiency disease-Beriberi]

B2: Riboflavin [ deficiency disease-bad skin]

B3: Niacin

B4: Adenine

B5: Pantothenic 

B6: Pyridoxin

B7: Biotin

B9: Folate; folic acid for brain development. 

B10: PABA[ Para aminobenzoic acid]

B12: Cobalamins ( deficiency disease-anemia)

About Vitamin B1( Thiamin): 

Deficiency Diseases: Beri-Beri, weak muscles.

Food sources:  Sweet Potato, beans, milk, dates, fresh fruits, beef, liver, yeast, and vegetables.

About Vitamin C: 

The chemical name of vitamin C is "Ascorbic acid".

Deficiency Diseases: 

Scurvy and Gingivitis.

In Scurvy, the wound takes a longer time to heal.

Food sources of vitamin C: 

Citrus fruits, Amla, goat milk, etc.

About Vitamin D: 

The chemical name of vitamin D is "Calciferol".

Deficiency Diseases: 

Rickets (weak bones) in children and Osteomalacia ( bone disease) in adults.

Sources of vitamin D: 

Sunlight, Egg, milk, fish, etc.

About vitamin E:

The chemical name of vitamin E is "Tocopherol".

Deficiency Diseases: 

Sterility, heart problems, and paralysis.

Food Sources: 

Wheat germ, Pumpkin seeds, Green leafy vegetables. milk, nuts, potato, etc.

About Vitamin K: 

The chemical name of vitamin K is "Phylloquinone".

Deficiency Diseases: 

Not clotting of blood, internal bleeding, and hemorrhage.

Food sources of vitamin K: 

Tomato, broccoli, cabbage, fish, nuts, etc.

About Iron mineral:

Deficiency Disease:  Anemia

Food Sources: 

Leafy vegetables, beetroot, poultry, red meat, pomegranate.

About Iodine mineral-

Deficiency Disease: Goiter

Food Sources: 

Marine food, salt, milk, etc.

About Calcium mineral:

Deficiency disease:  Weak bones, and teeth decay.

Food Sources: 

milk and milk products, nuts, eggs, wheat

About Sodium mineral:

Deficiency Disease:  Blood pressure problems

Food Sources: 

Salt, Onion, eggs, milk, etc.

About Potassium Mineral:

Deficiency Disease:  Weak bones and teeth 

Food sources:

 Bananas, nuts, pomegranates, chicken, pork, fish, etc.

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