Vitamins and Minerals UPSC[Prelims]

 Vitamins and Minerals[ Very Short Notes for Revision]

Vitamins are organic substances, and minerals are both organic and inorganic substances that can be found in both biotic or abiotic sources, and both are essential for the overall growth of the human body. 

Two kinds of vitamins:

  • Water-soluble vitamins: B group and C. 
  • Fat-soluble vitamins:  all other than B and C. 

Vitamin A

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Night blindness, Hyperkeratosis
  • Food sources: 
    • Carrot, broccoli, fish, egg, milk, green leaf vegetable, etc.

Vitamin B1( Thiamin): 

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Beri-Beri, weak muscles.
  • Food sources: 
    • Sweet Potato, beans, milk, dates, fresh fruits, and vegetables.

Vitamin C: 

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Scurvy, the wound takes a longer time to heal.
  • Food sources: 
    • Citrus fruits, Amla, goat milk, etc.

Vitamin D: 

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Rickets, weak bones.
  • Sources: 
    • Sunlight, Egg, milk, fish, etc.

Vitamin E:

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Sterility, heart problems. 
  • Food Sources: 
    • Wheat germ, Pumpkin seeds, Green leafy vegetables. milk, nuts, potato, etc.

Vitamin K: 

  • Deficiency Diseases: 
    • Not clotting of blood, internal bleeding.
  • Food sources: 
    • Tomato, broccoli, cabbage, fish, nuts, etc.

Scientific name of vitamin B Complex:

  • B1: Thiamine. 
  • B2: Riboflavin
  • B3: Niacin
  • B4: Adenine
  • B5: Pantothenic 
  • B6: Pyridoxin
  • B7: Biotin
  • B8: Inositol
  • B9: Folate; folic acid for brain development. 
  • B10: PABA[ Para aminobenzoic acid]
  • B12: Cobalamins

Important Minerals for body development are:


  • Deficiency Disease:
    •  Anemia
  • Food Sources: 
    • Leafy vegetables, beetroot, poultry, red meat, pomegranate.


  • Deficiency Disease: 
    • guitar
  • Food Sources: 
    • Marine food, salt, milk, etc.


  • Deficiency disease: 
    • Weak bones, teeth decay.
  • Food Sources: 
    • milk and milk product, nuts, egg, wheat
  • Deficiency Disease: 
    • Blood pressure problems
  • Food Sources: 
    • Salt, Onion, eggs, milk, etc.

  • Deficiency Disease: 
    • Weak bones and teeth 
  • Food sources:
    •  Bananas, nuts, pomegranate, chicken, pork, fish, etc.

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