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Climate Smart Agriculture in India UPSC

Table of Contents:

  • What is Climate Smart Agriculture ( CSA)? 
  • Why do we need Climate Smart Agriculture ( CSA) in India?
  • Government Efforts Regarding Climate Smart Agriculture in India
  • The way of Climate Smart Agriculture ( CSA)

What is Climate Smart Agriculture?

As per the Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO), Climate-smart agriculture is an approach to transforming food and agriculture systems to support sustainable development and safeguard food security under climate change. 

Why do we need climate-smart agriculture in India?

Climate change is a real global problem and it affects the productivity of agriculture negatively.

Climate change and food insecurity are twin problems in India. 

Due to the huge population of India and being the world's most populous country, there is an increase in demand for food in India. As per the estimate, there is a need to increase food productivity by 60 % by 2050 to fulfill the need for growing food demand in India. 

Almost 90 % of the agricultural area of India is affected by climate change as 90 % of agriculture in India is directly or indirectly dependent on the good and timely monsoon rains. 

Growing uncertainty of monsoon rains, heat waves, flash floods, droughts, cyclones, floods, and attacks of invasive species in agriculture are proofs of the negative impacts of climate changes in agriculture.

Due to climate change, traditional farming practices are becoming less productive. 

As per estimate, crop yield declined by 5 % since 2010 due to climate change.

Government Efforts Regarding Climate Smart Agriculture in India:

The National Action Plan on Climate Change ( NAPCC) was launched in 2008 by the government of India which emphasizes the role of climate-resilient agriculture in India. 

The Soil Health Card Scheme was launched in 2015 by the government of India, which recommends appropriate dosages of fertilizers for crop production and improving soil health. It helps in precise nutrient management to optimize agriculture farming.

The way of Climate Smart Agriculture ( CSA):

There are three pillars of Climate Smart Agriculture ( CSA):

  • Sustainability
  • Adaptability and resilience 
  • Carbon Smart practices


Climate Smart Agriculture( CSA) includes climate-smart practices that include sustainable use of water and energy, and growing weather-friendly crops. 

Constructing ponds and check dams to capture and store rainwater can help recharge groundwater and would make irrigation sustainable.

Using Vermicompost and biopesticide instead of fertilizer and pesticide will reduce soil degradation and will keep health of soil healthy for sustainable agriculture.

Crop diversification, crop combination, agroforestry, and integrated farming are needed to make agriculture sustainable. 

Adaptability and Resilience:

A holistic strategy is needed to mitigate and adapt to the negative impact of climate change. For example, we can grow drought-resistance crops in drought areas and flood-resistance crops in flood-affected areas based on climatic suitability. 

Climate Smart water management is key for climate resilience in agriculture in drought-prone regions. 

Using micro irrigation methods like drip irrigation can help to adopt the growing crops in drought-prone regions.

Carbon Smart practices (Reduction and removal of Green House Gases):

Paddy crops emit methane which is a greenhouse gas. 

Animal husbandry is also a major source of methane which is a greenhouse gas.

Production of wheat requires irrigation for that we use electricity, which also emits greenhouse gas.

Carbon farming in Climate Smart Agriculture is a way to reduce or remove greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. 

Agroforestry, recycling, and composting are ways of carbon farming in climate-smart agriculture.

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