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India's Brain Drain- Definition, Trend, Reason, Implications, and Government Initiative

Table of Contents:

  • Brain Drain- Definition
  • Trend
  • Reason
  • Implications
  • Government Initiative

What is a Brain Drain?

When educated professional people from one country migrate to another country for a better salary, education, or living, it is known as Brain Drain.

During the First World War and Second World War, people with the best brains (human capital) moved to America from Europe (mostly from Germany). This greatly benefited the United States.

Brain Drain in India:

India is witnessing the sharpest increase in brain drain. The following data indicate how money and talent ( Brain drain ) from India is draining:

As per the report,

About 1.8 million Indians will be living abroad in 2024 and they will spend about 85 billion dollars annually. 

About 9 lakh Indians have given up Indian citizenship since 2015.

More than 23000 millionaires have left India since 2014.

About 40 % of Foreign Students in Canada are Indian.

About 1.2 Lakh Indians got studies visas in the UK in the year 2022.

Most of the Indian talents are going to the USA.  According to a recent Government Survey ( 2023), the following are contributions of Indians in USA's economy

About 12 % of scientists in the USA are Indian.

About 38 % of doctors in the USA are Indian.

About 36 % of NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists are Indian.

About 34 % of employees at Microsoft are Indian.

About 28 % of employees of IBM are Indian.

About 17 % of employees of Intel are Indian.

About 12 % of Google employees are Indian.

Reasons for Brain drain in India:

The following are some prominent reasons that promote Brain drains--

Lack of opportunity in Higher education

Lack of employment opportunities and Job

The high tax rate and complex regulatory regime

Low living standards as compared to developed countries

Implication of Brain Drain:

Loss of Human Capital and skilled professionals

Reduction in Innovation, research, and development

Economic disparity

Loss of foreign exchange

Low productivity and slow economic development

What can the government do to stop the brain drain in India?

The government has taken many initiatives to stop brain drain. Some initiatives are as follows-

National Education Policy 2020:

It allows the top 100 International institutes to set up branches in India.

Research Parks:

The government has sanctioned the establishment of Research Parks at IITS and IISC.  

GIAN ( Global Initiative for Academic Network) initiative:

The government has now focused on the creation of economic opportunities to bring back overseas scientists of Indian Origin to India. 

VAJRA ( Visiting Advanced Joint Research) faculty scheme. 

It provides platforms for Indian-origin scientists to undertake collaborative research in Indian Institutes.

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