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E-governance, as a critical tool of governance, has ushered in effectiveness, transparency, and accountability in governments. What inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these| UPSC 2023 General Studies Paper 2 Mains PYQ


E-governance, as a critical tool of governance, has ushered in effectiveness, transparency, and accountability in governments. What inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these

(UPSC 2023 General Studies Paper 2 (Main) Exam, Answer in 150 words)


E-governance or electronic governance refers to the use of information and communication technology ( ICT) to enhance the delivery of government services, improve administrative processes, and promote transparency and citizen participation in governance. 

E-governance involves the integration of digital technologies into day to day functioning of government and public service delivery.

E-governance is a critical tool of governance as it brings effectiveness, transparency, and accountability to government operations. 


By reducing the processing time, and minimizing human intervention, human error, and paperwork, e-governance makes governance effective. 

For example, information technology made online ticket booking, income tax filing and processing, Aadhar usage in opening Bank Accounts, and Passport application processing very easy. 


Government initiatives like e-tendering, online RTI, and computerization of land records increase transparency in governance.


Initiatives like the Right to Information Portal, citizen report cards, and social audits enhance accountability.

However, several inadequacies and challenges hinder its full enhancement, some are as follows:

Digital Divide ( Unequal Access of informational knowledge):

Disparities in internet access and digital literacy contribute to a digital divide. Due to the digital divide,  rural and Marginalized communities limit their participation in e-governance initiatives.

Bureaucratic Resistance:

Many officials resist adopting new technologies due to unfamiliarity, concerns about job security, or a preference for traditional methods. 

Limited Connectivity ( Infrastructure Challenges):

Limited internet connectivity and power supply hamper the seamless implementation of e-governance initiatives.

Cybersecurity Concerns ( Data Breaches):

The increasing reliance on digital platforms raises concerns about data security. Government databases containing sensitive information are vulnerable to cyber threats, including hacking and data breaches, which can compromise citizen privacy and erode trust.

Privacy Issues ( Data Protection):

E-Governance involves the collection and storage of vast amounts of personal data. Inadequate data protection leads to privacy breaches and misuse of citizen information, which raises concerns about surveillance and unauthorized access.

Limited Awareness:

In some cases, citizens may not be fully aware of the available e-governance services or how to use them. Enhancing awareness and promoting citizen participation is crucial for the success of e-governance.

In Summary, E-governance is a critical tool of governance but the potential of e-governance is not fully tapped due to the digital divide, lack of digital literacy, limited awareness, and growing cyberthreat and privacy concerns. It is essential for governments to continuously adapt and improve e-governance systems to meet the evolving needs and challenges. 

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