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History of Uttar Pradesh During Mughal Time | History, Civilization, Culture, and Ancient Cities of UP

 History of Uttar Pradesh During Mughal Time:

Uttar Pradesh was the heartland of the Mughal Empire as Babur, Humayun, and Akbar ruled the Indian subcontinent from Agra and Fatehpur Sikri.

Akbar established Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra as the capital and ruled from here.

Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Prayagraj ( Allahabad), Lucknow, Etawah, Jaunpur, and Mathura were important cities of that time.

The following is a brief history of the establishment of the Mughals in Uttar Pradesh:

Babur [ 1526 to 1530]:

Babur established the Mughal Empire in India and captured Delhi and Agra after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat in 1526.

Humayun [ 1530 to 1540, 1555-1556]:

Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun at Chausa ( Bihar ) in 1539 and also in Kannauj ( Uttar Pradesh) in 1540, and forced him to flee to Iran. However, he re-captured Delhi in the Battle of Sirhind in 1555.

Akbar [1556 to 1605]:

Mughal Bridge, Agra Fort, and Fatehpur Sikri were constructed during the Akbar period.

Jahangir [ 1605 to 1627]

Shah Jahan[ 1628 to 1658]:

Aurangzeb [ 1658 to 1707]

Capital City of Mughal:

Agra was the capital city of Mughal from 1526 to 1571. 

Akbar made Fatehpur Sikri near Agra as Mughal Capital and it remained Mughal capital between 1571 to 1585.

Akbar transferred its capital from Agra to Lahore and it remained the capital city between 1586 to 1598.

Agra again became the capital city of Mughal between 1598 to 1648.

Shah Jahan transferred its capital from Agra to Delhi and it remained the capital from 1648 to 1857. 

Important Mughal Architecture in Uttar Pradesh:

  • Taj Mahal
  • Agra Fort
  • Buland Darwaja
  • Shahi Bridge

Agra Fort:

Agra Fort was constructed by Akbar built with red sandstone, it is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Buland Darwaja ( Victory Gate):

Buland Darwaja was constructed by Akbar in Fatehpur Sikri with red sandstone and marble after the Gujarat Triumph.

Taj Mahal:

Shah Jahan constructed the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a World Heritage site. White Marble was used for the construction.

Ahmad Lahori was the Chief Architect of the Taj Mahal.

Mughal Bridge or Shahi Bridge:

Mughal Bridge or Shahi Bridge was constructed at Jaunpur by Akbar. It is on the Gomati River.

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