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Regional synthesis |Perspectives in Human Geography | Human Geography UPSC |Geography optional notes

Regional Synthesis(क्षेत्रीय संश्लेषण)

In Areal Differentiation(AD), we give importance to the study of regions in geography. The region should be studied in geography, it was emphasized in Areal differentiation (AD). In regional synthesis, importance is given to the "process of studying the region", which describes how the region should be studied.

In one line:

Regional Synthesis =study(spatial, temporal, human)

In regional synthesis, dividing the geographic components, concepts, and processes related to a geographic event or geographic region into separate parts, comparing it to a geological time scale [present, 100 years ago, 1000 years ago, millions of years ago] and emphasis is placed on the study by synthesizing of related concepts, components, and processes; This type of study in geography comes under regional synthesis.
For example,
From a regional synthesis point of view, the geographical study of volcanic activity includes, 
  • the spatial distribution of current volcanic activity, as well as how volcanic activities occur on geographic time scales (present, 100 years ago, 1000 years ago, millions of years). 
  • It also emphasizes the study of how volcanic activity affects and how it affects other geological phenomena.

The geographical study of the Himalayan region from the point of view of regional synthesis includes the following:
  • To identify the various components of the natural and cultural landscape of the Himalayan region.
  • Geographical distribution of events.
  • Comparing all events on a geological time scale.
  • synthesizing all related components

In this type of geographical study, the emphasis is on regional synthesis.

The following diagram explains the summary of regional synthesis:

Regional Synthesis
Regional Synthesis 

An American Geographer, J. L Berry explained the regional synthesis through the geographical matrix.
As per Berry, geographical region or phenomenon should be studied from three perspectives:
  • Spatial point of view
  • Temporal point of view
  • The human point of view

In Geographical Matrix, there are three dimensions:
  • 1st dimension[ rows] represents attributes.
  • 2nd dimension [Columns] represents locations.
  • 3rd dimension represents Time.

In the matrix, each cell has a geographical fact.
The following diagram shows the basic features of the Berry geographical matrix of the Delhi NCR Region (in this matrix we considered Mathura location as part of the Delhi NCR region).

Berry's Regional Synthesis
Berry's Regional Synthesis 

  As per Berry's geographical matrix, there are ten approaches to doing regional analysis for a particular region, and the same are listed below:

  • By comparing two cells within a row, we get the spatial variation of geographic features. In the above geographic matrix, the first geographic feature is temperature. The temperature of New Delhi is X1 while the temperature of Old Delhi is Y1.
  • Within the same column, different cells show localized geographic features. In the above geographic matrix, the New Delhi localized regional analysis variables are temperature, rainfall, and humidity.
  • The spatial variation can be studied by comparing the two lines.
  • Regional differentiation can be studied by comparing two columns.
  • Study of sub-matrix.
  • By comparing a row over time, we get to know the spatial variation of that place. Example Comparing the present temperature of New Delhi with the temperature of 100 years ago will give us an idea of ​​how the temperature of New Delhi is changing over time.
  • We can get the sequence occupancy of a particular location by comparing the same column over time.
  • Comparing a row with another row in the time dimension
  • Comparing a column with other columns in the time dimension.
  • Comparing and studying sub-matrices in the time dimension

What is the importance of regional synthesis at present?
  • The rise of global temperature or climate change is not a sudden phenomenon and it is not uniform worldwide. By using regional synthesis one can easily get a trend of temperature rise region-wise over time.
  • It helps to study of sequence occupancy of the region.
  • Regional synthesis helps to analyze regional inequality within and with another region by comparing economic variables and also tells us what the state of regional inequality was over time.

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Try to solve the following questions

  • Regional synthesis is the crux of geographical studies.” Elaborate(2015, 250 words, 20 marks)

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Click here for comments
26 September 2021 at 21:53 ×

crisp and short...
nice initiative.
keep going #onlyiasexam

5 March 2022 at 15:13 ×

thank u so much...