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Recent views on the mountain building UPSC

There are two recent views of the mountain building:

There are three types of mountains:

  • Fold mountains
  • Volcanic mountains
  • Block mountains

 Fold mountains:
As per the plate tectonic theory, fold mountains are created due to the convergence of the two plates. For examples:
  • Rocky and Andes mountains ranges are created due to the convergence of ocean ( i.e Pacific) and continental ( i.e American) plates
  • The Himalayan mountain range is created due to the convergence of the Indian plate and Eurasian plate( C-C convergence).
  • The Ural mountain range is created due to European and Asian plate convergence.

As per Geosynclinal theory, fold mountains range are created due to the shrinkage of the earth's lithosphere. for more details please read Geosynclinal's theory.

Volcanic Mountains:

volcanic mountain
volcanic mountain

As per plate tectonics, due to plate interaction, fault or fracture happened in the uplifted plate due to submergence of the heavier plate, as a result, magma erupted from the asthenosphere. Volcanic mountains are created due to the accumulation of magma. Mount Fuji in Japan is an example of a Volcanic mountain.

Block mountains:

Block mountains are not really mountains but they are made from fault from the landscape.

block mountain
block mountain
Herz mountain in Germany is an example of Block mountains

Try to solve the following questions:
  • Evaluate how far Kober's geosynclinal theory explains the mountain-building process. ( UPSC 2018, 250 words, 20 marks)

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