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The Indian Parliament

Overview of Indian Parliament:

Parliament comprises of :

  • President: President is not a member of either house of parliament.
  • Rajya Sabha (Upper house or council of state):  As of now in 2019, Upper limit of members is 250 ( 12  nominated, 238 representation form states and Union territories)
  • Lok Sabha( Lower house or house of people): As of now in 2019, Upper limit of members is 552 ( 530 from stats, 20 from Union Territories, 2 nominated)

Functions of Parliament:
There are three functions:

  1. Executive function
  2. Judiciary Function
  3. Legislative function

Executive power:

Parliament exercises the power to the executive  via:
  • various committee
  • Questions hour
  • Zero hours
  • Ministers are collectively responsible for parliament.
  • Budget passing
  • Scrutinize the government through various committee
  • President rule in the state

Judiciary function

  • Impeachment of the president in case of violation of the constitution.
  • Impeachment of Supreme court and high court judges
  • Punish the people in case of breach of privilege

Legislative function:

  • Subjects are divided into three parts Union list, state list, and concurrent list.
    • Parliament has exclusive rights to make laws/acts from the union list.
  • Parliament also empowers to make law from the state list:
    • if Rajya sabha passes the resolution by the 2/3rd majority.
    • When president rule in the state
    • When two or more states request so
    • When it necessary to implement the international importance treaty, agreements

Law Making Process in the Parliament:

  • The proposed law is called bill
  • Bill must be passed by both house of parliament
  • After president assent of the bill, it became law.

Types of bills: 

There are three types of bills:

  • Money Bill:
    •  The bills which deal with money related that are the imposition, abolition alternation of any tax, regulation of borrowing money, related to the contingency fund or consolidation fund of India. It is defined in article 110.
    • It can be tabled only in Lok sabha with prial approval from President
    • President can not veto if money bill passed
    • Lok Sabha speaker has final authority to decide whether a bill is a money bill or not
  • Ordinary Bill: Joint sitting possible only for ordinary bill
  • Constitutional Amendment bill

There are seven stages of passing the bills:

  • Stage 1: 
    • First reading: Bill can be introduced in either house of parliament by either minister ( government bill) or other than minister (private bill). Other than a money bill, ordinary bills and constitutional amendment bills can be introduced by private members.
  • Stage 2: 
    • Publication in the official gazette
  • Stage 3: 
    • To the  standing committee
  • Stage 4: 
    • Second reading: Details discussion happen in this stage, it may further go to joint committees, gets public opinion
  • Stage 5. 
    • Third reading: Discussion and fate of the bill decided by voting in this stage.
  • Stage 6.
    •  Bills go to another house, and voting and discussion happen.
  • Stage 7. 
    • Bills presented for president assent.

You must read.

Qualification for MP:

  • Must be Citizen of India
  • For Rajya Sabha: minimum  age required 30 years
  • For Lok sabha minimum age is 25 years
  • Must have voter ids in any constituency
  • Qualification as prescribed by parliament

The following questions were asked in UPSC and state PCS

1. With reference to the Parliament of India, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2017)
1. A private member‘s bill is a bill presented by a Member of Parliament is not elected but only nominated by the President of India.
2. Recently, a private member‘s bill has been passed in the Parliament of India for the first time in its history.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer d.

2. The Parliament of India exercises control over the functions of the Council of Ministers through (UPSC 2017)
1.       Adjournment motion
2.       Questions hour
3.       Supplementary questions
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer d.

3. In the Parliament of India, the purpose of an adjournment motion is ( UPSC 2012)
(a) to allow a discussion on a definite matter of urgent public importance
(b) to let opposition members collect information from the ministers
(c) to allow a reduction of a specific amount in demand for grant
(d) to postpone the proceedings to check the inappropriate or violent behavior on the part of some members

Answer a.

3. Which of the following special powers have been conferred on the Rajya Sabha by the Constitution of India? (UPSC 2012)
a)To change the existing territory of a State and to change the name of a State
b)To pass a resolution empowering the Parliament to make laws in the State List and to create one or more All India Services
c)To amend the election procedure of the President and to determine the pension of the President after his/her retirement
d)To determine the functions of the Election Commission and to determine the number of Election Commissioners

Answer b.

4. Consider the following statements regarding a No Confidence Motion in India : (2014)
1.       There is no mention of a No-Confidence Motion in the Constitution of India.
2.       A motion of No-Confidence can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer. C

5. For election to the Lok Sabha, a nomination paper can be filed by (UPSC 2017)
(a) anyone residing in India.
(b) a resident of the constituency from which the election is to be contested.
(c) any citizen of India whose name appears in the electoral roll of a constituency.
(d) any citizen of India.

Answer. C

6. The term of the Lok Sabha (UPSC 2002)
(a)Cannot be extended under any circumstances
(b)Can be extended by six months at a time
(c)Can be extended by one year at a time during the proclamation of emergency
(d)Can be extended for two years at a time during the proclamation of emergency

Answer. C

7. Which of the following are/is stated in the Constitution of India? (UPSC 1997)
1.       The President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament.
2.       The Parliament shall consist of the President and two Houses.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a)Neither 1 nor 2
(b)Both 1 and 2
(c)Only 1
(d)Only 2

Answer. B

8. Which one of the following statements about a Money Bill is not correct? (UPSC 2000)
a)A Money Bill can be tabled in either House of Parliament
b)The Speaker of Lok Sabha is the final authority to decide whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not
c)The Rajya Sabha must return a Money Bill passed by the Lok Sabha and send it for consideration within 14 days
d)The President cannot return a Money Bill to the Lok Sabha for reconsideration

Answer. A

9. What will follow if a Money Bill is substantially amended by the Rajya Sabha? (UPSC 2013)
a)The Lok Sabha may still proceed with the Bill, accepting or not accepting the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha
b)The Lok Sabha cannot consider the Bill further
c)The Lok Sabha may send the Bill to the Rajya Sabha for reconsideration
d)The President may call a joint sitting for passing the Bill

Answer. A’

10. Regarding Money Bill, which of the following statements is not correct? (UPSC 2018)
a)A bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions relating to imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax.
b)A Money Bill has provisions for the custody of the Consolidated Fund of India or the Contingency Fund of India.
c)A Money Bill is concerned with the appropriation of money out of the Contingency Fund of India.
d)A Money Bill deals with the regulation of borrowing of money or giving of any guarantee by the Government of India.

Answer. C

11. In what way does the Indian Parliament exercise control over the administration? (UPSC 2001)
(a) Through Parliamentary Committees.
(b) Through Consultative committees of various ministries.
(c) By making the administrators send periodic reports.
(d)By compelling the executive to issue writs.

Answer. a

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