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Present a classification of Agricultural Regions of the world developed by Whittlesey. | UP PCS Optional Geography Mains Paper 1 2019

Present a classification of Agricultural Regions of the world developed by Whittlesey.
( UPPSC, UP PCS, 2019, 10 Marks) 
हीटिलसी द्वारा विकसित किया गया विश्व के कृषि प्रदेशो का वर्गीकरण प्र्सतु कीजिये।



Whittlesey classified the world into 11 major agriculture regions based on the five major variables comprises of both physical and non-physical factors.
The following are the five variables of Whittlesey classification:

  • Crop and Livestock
  • Marketing or Consumption Pattern
  • Mechanized or toll used for Agriculture
  • Method of Land Use [ Intensive or Extensive]
  • Productivity

The following are the 11 agriculture regions:

  • Nomadic Herding 
  • Livestock Ranching
  • Commercial Dairy Farming
  • Commercial Crop and Live Stock Farming
  • Shifting Cultivations 
  • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture without Paddy Crops
  • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture with Paddy Crops
  • Commercial Grain Farming
  • Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Plantation Agriculture
  • Horticulture Agriculture

Whittlesey classification of Agriculture region
Whittlesey classification of Agriculture region

Nomadic Herding:
  • Region:
    • Sahara desert, part of West Asia, Central Asia, Mongolia, China.
  • Characteristics:
    • Herder has a nomadic settlement,
    • People move from season to season with their livestock.
    • Major products: fruit, nuts, animal skin, and product.
    • India, Gujjar practice nomadic herding in the Ladakh region.

Livestock Ranching:
  • Region:
    • Prairies Grassland USA and Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Argentina, Australia.
  • Characteristics:
    • Similar characteristics with nomadic herding with a permanent settlement.

Commercial Dairy Farming:
  • Region:
    • Part of Europe, Eastern USA.
  • Characteristics:
    • Milk product export, high productivity of milk.

Commercial crop and Livestock Farming:
  • Region:
    • Europe
  • Characteristics:
    • Major crops are Potatoes, Wheat, Oats, and Barley.

Shifting cultivation:
  • Region:
    • South America, Africa, northeast India, China, and Myanmar.
  • Characteristics:
    • Low productivity of agriculture.

Intensive Subsistence agriculture:

  • Region:
    • West India, part of Africa,
  • Characteristics:
    • Labour intensive agriculture, very less use of machines in agriculture. 
    • Two or more crops are grown in a year, on very small farmland.

Intensive subsistence with Paddy crops:

  • Region:
    • Monsoon region, eastern India, Southeast Asian countries, Eastern China.
  • Characteristics:
    • More than two paddy crops in a year are grown

Commercial Grain farming or Extensive farming:
  • Region:
    • North America, South America.
  • Characteristics:
    • Only one crop is grown
    • Mechanization of agriculture

Mediterranean agriculture:
  • Region:
    • European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea.
  • Characteristics:
    • Citrus fruits production such as grapes. Orange, lemon.

Plantation Agriculture:
  • Region:
    • Hilly areas of India such as the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, and Assam.
  • Characteristics:
    • Major crops are tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, coconut,
Horticulture Agriculture:
  • Region:
    • Around the central business district of world cities.
  • Characteristics: 
    • Vegetables and fruits are grown to fulfill the demand of the city.

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