Give an account of Major Biodiversity hot spots of India. | Indian Geography | UP PCS Optional Geography Mains Paper 2 2019




Give an account of Major Biodiversity hot spots of India.
 ( UPPSC, UP PCS, 2019, 15 Marks)
 भारत के प्रमुख जैव विविधता हॉट स्पॉट का विवरण दीजिये।

 Answer: 

 As per Conventional International, There are two strict criteria for a region to become Bio-Diversity Hot Spots; these are: 

  • Must have 1500 species of endemic plants or more than 0.5 % of total plant species. 
  • It must have lost at least 70 % of the total original habitat. 


 As per the above two criteria, at present, there are 35 biodiversity hot spots in the world, and 4 out of 35 are also located in India. 
 The following are 4 Biodiversity hotspot of India: 

  • Himalayas 
  • Indo Burma region 
  • Western Ghats 
  • Sunda land 

Biodiversity hot spots of India
Biodiversity hot spots of India


Himalayas: 

  • Regions:  
    • Himalayan region of Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar 
  • Features:
    • Home of many large birds, Mammal such as vulture, tiger, rhinos 


Indo Burma region 

  • Regions
    • North East India except Assam, 
    • Andaman Islands
    • Myanmar 
    • Thailand, 
    • Laos, 
    • Vietnam, 
    • Cambodia 
  • Features:
    • Home of endemism freshwater turtle 

Western Ghats :

  • Region: 
    • The entire Western Ghats from Gujarat to Tamil Nadu 
    • Sri Lanka. 
  • Features: 
    • The region is home of a larger number of plants varieties 
    • home of lion-tailed Macaque 
    • Asiatic Elephant 

Sunderland 

  • Region:
    • Nicobar groups of Islands 
    • Indonesia 
    • Malasia 
    • Brunei 
    • Philippines
  •  Features:
    •  Huge habitat losses for Plantation cultivation such as Palm oil
For a detailed explanation, watch the below video:


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