Give an account of the forest wealth of India and discuss the measures adopted for its conservation and planning. | Indian Geography | UP PCS Optional Geography Mains Paper 2 2019




Give an account of the forest wealth of India and discuss the measures adopted for its conservation and planning.
( UPPSC, UP PCS, 2019, 15 Marks)
भारत की वन संपदा का  विवरण दीजिये तथा इसके संरक्षण येवम नियोजन के लिए अपनाए गए उपायों पर  विवेचना कीजिये।

Answer:


As per the forest survey of India,  2 % of global recorded forest cover is in India with 10 nth positions in the world. Russia has the highest forest wealth in the world with 20 % of global forest cover.

As per the forest survey of India, the 'forest cover' includes tree canopy density having more than 10 % and more than 1 hectares in areas, irrespective of ownership.
Forest is resources for individuals as well for the country, as it provides oxygen, foods, fuels, habitat, and many more benefits to humans, thus it is treated as wealth.
As per the India State of Forest Report(ISFR) 2019, forest wealth details are listed below:
  • Forest cover is 21.67%  or 0.12% more from last year 
  • Forest and tree cover is 25.56%.
  • Forest are not equally distributed all over India.
  • In the case of the geographical area, the following are three the largest forest holders states:
    • Madhya Pradesh
    • Arunachal Pradesh
    • Chhatisgarh
  • Percentage-wise, the following are three the largest forest holders states:
    • Meghalaya(85.4%)
    • Arunachal Pradesh(79.63%)
    • Nagaland (75%)
  • Tropical Evergreen Forests are found in Andaman and Nicobar, Western Ghats, and the North Eastern States.
  • Dry Alpine Shrub, in northern Himalayan in Higher latitudes.
  • Tropical Dry deciduous and Thorn forests are found in the semi-arid region of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  • Tropical Dry deciduous forest: 40.86 % of total Forest (highest )
  • Tropical Moist deciduous forest: 17.65 % of Total Indian Forest


Conservation measures:
  • National forest policy 1952
  • National forest policy 1988
  • National forest policy 2018

National forest policy 1952:
  • Main aim 33% of forest cover and proposed balance use of land.
  • The Central Board of the directory was set up.
  • Maintain environment stability.


National forest policy 1988:

  • Maintenance of environmental stability.
  • Encourage people to minimize the pressure on the forest and use a substitute for wood.
  • Checking the soil erosion by mitigating the floods and droughts.
  • Increase forest cover through massive afforestation and social forestry.
  • Land diversion and promote wildlife protection through the national park, biosphere reserve
National forest policy 2018:

  • Minimum 1/3rd of geographical areas.
  • Focus timber and forest-based industry
  • PPP model public-private partnership model for afforestation and reforestation.
  • Two body to set up:
  • National commercial forest management
  • National Board of forestry.



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