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Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoon UPSC | UPSC UPPSC State PCS| Geography of India

भारतीय मानसून की उत्पत्ति और क्रियाविधि

Table of contents:
  • Basic Terminology related to Indian Monsoon
    • Origin of Monsoon
    • Mechanism of Monsoon
      • Onset of Monsoon
      • Southwest Monsoon or advancing Monsoon
      • Northeast Monsoon or retreating Monsoon
      • Break-in Monsoon
  • Previous Years UPSC question related to Indian Monsoon
  • Theories of Origin and Mechanism of Monsoon
    • Classical Theories
      • Thermal theory of Hailey
    • Modern Theories
      • Air Mass Theory or ITCZ theory
      • Jet stream Theory
    • Recent Theory of Monsoon
  • Characteristics or features of Monsoon
  • Rainfall Pattern in India 
  • Factors affecting the Indian Monsoon

Basic Terminologies of Indian Monsoon

  • Seasonal reversal of winds. Arabic geographer Al Masudi coins the monsoon word from the Arabic word Mausam.
  • Monsoon is a global phenomenon that occurred between 20 degrees north and south. But most extensively it is seen in the Indian subcontinent.
Origin of monsoon:
  • Mainly Thermal origin due to differential heating of land and ocean and the apparent movement of the Sun northward and southward. But other factors also affect the origin of the monsoon such as ocean circulation. There are different theories that explain the origin of the Monsoon.
The onset of Monsoon:
  • The onset of the Monsoon means the date of arrival of the monsoon. It is generally the first week of June.
Advancing Monsson:
  • The gradual northward movement of the southwest monsoon is called advancing monsoon.

Retreating Monsoon:
  • The gradual southward movement of the northwest monsoon is called the retreating monsoon.
Rain bearing system: 
  • The Bay of Bengal causes rainfall over the northern Indian plains. 
  • Arabian sea branches cause rainfall on the west coast of India. 

 Break-in monsoon: 
  • After having rained for a few days, rainfall does not occur for one or more weeks, it is known as a break-in monsoon. Because : 
  • Rainbearing storms are not very frequent along the monsoon trough in the northern plains. 
  • Over the west coast, winds blow parallel to the coast. 

Try to solve the following questions:
  • Discuss the major characteristics of the Indian monsoon with special emphasis on the causative factors( UPSC 1922)
  • Discuss the recent theories put forward to explain the origin and mechanism of the Indian Monsoon. ( UPSC, 1994)
  • Elucidate the mechanism of the Indian Monsoon( UPSC, 1999)
  • Explain the Origin, Mechanism, and characteristics of the Summer Monsoon in India. ( UPSC 2002)
  • Give a Critical account of the recent theories of the origin of the Indian monsoon with special reference to the Jet Stream Theory. (UPSC, 2006)
  • Discuss the mechanism and origin of Monsoon winds and explain the role of El Nino on Monsoon circulation. ( UPSC, 2008)
  • Discuss the mechanism of the Indian Monsoon (UPSC 2013)
  • Discuss the nature and origin of the Indian monsoon and recent techniques for its prediction. ( UPSC, 2014)
  • Give a reasonable account of the Unusual Pattern of Distribution of Monsoonal rainfall in India. ( UPSC, 2017)
  • Why is the monsoon erratic in nature? Explain. ( UPSC 2019)
  • Explain the origin, progress, and retreat of the Indian monsoon and discuss its impact on the Indian economy. (UPSC 2018, 250 words, 20 marks)
  • Elaborate on the origin of monsoon with reference to thermal and recent concepts. ( UPPSC 2020)

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