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India Pakistan Border Issues UPSC | International boundary of India and related issues | Political Aspects | Geography of India

The international border shared between Indian states and Pakistan

  • Gujarat: 506 Km border.
  • Rajasthan: 1170 Km border
  • Punjab: 425 km
  • Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh: 1222 km

The total border length is 3323 km. ( Third highest after Bangladesh, and China's border length).

The following territories are disputed between India and Pakistan.

  • Kashmir
  • Siachin Glacier
  • Sir Creek Dispute


Both India and Pakistan Claim the entire erstwhile Jammu and Kashmir State, now it has been divided into five parts:

PoK( Pakistan Occupied Kashmir): 

  • Control and administrated by Pakistan

Shaksgam Valley: 

  • It was part of Pok up to 1963. In 1963, Pakistan sold Saksgam Valley to China.

Jammu and Kashmir: 

  • It is the Union territory of India and is Control and Administered by India.


  • It is the Union Territory of India.

Akshai Chin: 

  • In the 1962 war, China illegally occupied the Akchai chin. It is a part of the Ladakh Union territory.

Siachin Glacier:

  • Before 1984, both countries do not have permanent control over Siachin Glaciers.
  • Through the Meghdoot operation, India established a permanent settlement.

Sir Creek Dispute:

  • It is a 96 km estuary in Rann of Kutch.
  • Pakistan claims the entire Sir Creek as per the 1914 agreement between the Government of Sindh and the Government of Kutch.
  • India claims the entire Sir Creek Dispute as per British Map 1925.

India Pakistan Border Issues

India -Pakistan Border Conflict:

The India-Pakistan border conflict started after the creation of Pakistan. In 1947, the proxy war started over Kashmir issues.

  • 1960: Indus water treaty
  • 1965: Pakistan launched an offensive attack in the Rann of Kutch and the Jammu & Kashmir region. India launched a counter-offense on the Punjab border and the Indian army reached near Lahore.
  • 1966: Tashkent Agreement
  • 1970: In Pakistan, Internal conflict started after a split verdict came. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto got the majority in West Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won all the seats in Eastern Pakistan.
  • 1971: 80 lakh Bangladeshi refugees in India. The US-Pakistan-China axis exited.
  • India signed the 20-year treaty peace and friendship treaty with the Soviet Union.
  • December 1971: full fledge war started. With the support of the local population in East Pakistan. Indian army surrounded Dhaka and capture the 90,000 Pakistani Army. Bangladesh created.
  • 1972: Shimala Agreement
  • 1984: Operation Meghdoot Permanent establishment in Siachen Glaciers.
  • 1999: Kargil Ware limited war.

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