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Geo-hydrological investigations

 Why is mapping important for analyzing geo-hydrological investigations? Explain with relevant examples. (UPSC-2020, 10 Marks, 150 words)


Broadly, the Investigation of the availability of overall water resources in particular areas is called Geo-hydrological Investigation; In India, the geo-hydrological investigation includes the following things;

  • Assessment of depth of groundwater level pre-monsoon and post-monsoon.
  • Calculating Moisture in Soils.
  • Finding the Quantity and quantity of water in the river stream, lakes, groundwater, and reservoirs.
  • Impact of urbanization on water demand.
  • Impact of industry and other economic activities on water demand.
  • Flood drought control strategy.

Apart from remote sensing technology and other information, mapping is very important for analyzing Geo-hydrological investigation because;

  • The map represents the complex information of water resources in a very simple way and much small scale that making investigation easy.
  • A topographic map will help to identify the flood and drought-prone area and help in mitigating the same. For example, areas with low elevation are prone to flood and high elevations are prone to drought. 
  • Mapping will also help to make a strategy about the river linking such as planing the route, affected areas such as the national park, sanctuary, etc.
  • Mapping will help in mitigating pollution and environmental conservation.
In this way, mapping is important for analyzing geo-hydrological investigations.

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