Concepts of Nation and State geography UPSC

 Question.

Give an account of the concepts of Nation and State. (UPPSC, 2020, 10 marks)

Answer.

We think that nation & country and state and province are the same, however, the meanings of nation and state are not the same. Let us understand the concept of nation and state.

What is the nation?

  • A nation is a group of people with similar identities like race, caste, history, religion, geography, etc. Therefore, the nation is not a country; Today, a nation is a subset of a country.
  • Examples of the nation, Hindu nation, a Muslim nation, Maratha nation, the Jewish nation, etc, which does not exist presently.


What is the state?

The state is a kind of political concept.

The state has four major components:

  • Defined geographical area
  • Population
  • Own Government
  • Sovereignty: To defend oneself, to make laws, to collect taxes, etc.

For example,

  • By definition, India is a state with many nations because India is a good example of unity in diversity.
  • France, Sweden, Denmark state first and nation later.
  • The United States of America is also an example of a state and a nation as it is a good example of the melting point theory of diversity.


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