Give a detailed description of hot spots in India UPSC


Give a detailed description of hot spots in India.  ( UPPSC, 2020, 15 Marks)


According to International Conventional, there are two criteria for a region to become a biodiversity hot spot; These are:

  • There should be 1500 species of endemic plants or more than 0.5% of the total plant species in the area.
  • At least 70% of the vegetation of the total original area of ​​the area has been destroyed.

Currently, there are 36 biodiversity hot spots in the world, and 4 out of 36 are partially located in India.

Following are the 4 biodiversity hotspots of India:

  • Himalaya
  • Indo Burma Region
  • Western Ghats
  • Sunda land

Apart from these 4, there are two more that meet the criteria to be among the hot spots in India, and they are:

  • Terai-Dwar Savanna [Indo-Brahmaputra Plain]
  • Sunderbans [Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta]

Biodiversity hot spots of India
Biodiversity hot spots of India



  • Himalayan region of Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar.


  • Himalaya is the home of many large birds such as vultures, and mammals such as tigers, rhinoceros

Indo Burma Region


  • North East India except Assam
  • Andaman Islands
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand,
  • Laos,
  • Vietnam,
  • Cambodia


  • It is home to many species of freshwater turtles

Western Ghats:


  • The entire Western Ghats from Gujarat to Tamil Nadu
  • Sri Lanka.


  • The region is home to a large number of plant varieties.
  • lion-tailed macaque
  • Asian elephant

Sunda land


  • Nicobar group of islands
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Brunei
  • Philippines


  • The world's largest flower, Rafflesia is found in the Sunda Land.
  •  Huge reduction in area due to the cultivation of plantations like palm oil.

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