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Give the account of the evolution of Human Geography with the Corridors of Time.


Give the account of the evolution of Human Geography with the Corridors of Time.

(Class 12 geography, Fundamentals of Human GeographyChapter -1. Human Geography -Nature and Scope )


As we know, human geography is the study of the relationship between the physical environment and humans.
Humans started interacting with the physical environment from the very beginning. Therefore, the development of human geography has its roots in the beginning of human history. Following are the broad perspectives on the development of human geography:-

Pre-colonial period [before 1600 AD]:
The idea of ​​determinism in geography emerged before the colonial period. In this age, the man was more environmentally and followed the laws of the environment to the fullest.

Early Colonial Period [1600 AD-1800 AD]:
Due to imperialist and trading interests, new areas were discovered which gave great impetus to the development of geography.

Post-colonial period:
Regional analysis emerged in geography. In geography, importance was given to the study of the region (part of the earth). It was believed that understanding a part of the earth (region) would help in understanding the whole of the earth.

The 1930s - World War Period:
The concept of areal differentiation emerged in this era. American geographer, Richard Hartshorne was the main exponent of the concept of areal differentiation in geography. Areal differentiation also focused on identifying the uniqueness of a given region and understanding how and why it differs from other regions.

From the late 1950s to the late 1960s:
The concept of spatial organization emerged in geography. Quantitative revolution emerged in Geography during this period. Emphasis was placed on the use of statistical tools, computers, laws of physics, and other sophisticated tools to map and analyze human phenomena. The main objective was to identify mappable patterns for various human activities.

The 1970s:
The quantitative revolution and dissatisfaction with the dehumanizing way of doing geography led to the rise of new approaches to geography such as humanistic, radical, and behaviorist thought.
The Humanistic School of Geography lays emphasis on the study of the social welfare of people in geography. In geography, emphasis was laid on the study of housing, health, education, etc.
Radical ideology in geography is based on Marxist philosophy. The root cause of poverty and social inequality is linked to capitalism. It emphasized the socialist aspect of the study of geography.

Behaviorist ideology in geography emphasizes the role of both direct (living) experience and indirect perception [mental map geography]. Indirect perception in geography [mental map geography] varies from human to human on the basis of social categories such as ethnicity, caste, religion, etc.

The 1990s:
After the 1990s, postmodernism began in geography. Opposed the generalization and applicability of universal principles to explain human conditions. Importance was given to understanding each local context in its own right.

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