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Explain the challenges of food security in India. How can they be removed? । UPPSC General Studies-III Mains Solutions 2019


Explain the challenges of food security in India. How can they be removed? Explain.

( UPPSC, UP PCS Mains General Studies-III/GS-3 2019)


Food security refers to the availability of food in the country, and the ability of each individual to access and afford sufficient nutrients for each day of the year.

Food security in India is one of the challenging tasks, however, it is not impossible to ensure. At present, we are the most populous country in the world and we are the second largest food grains producing country after China in the world. 

In the future, we will be number one in foodgrains production by increasing agricultural productivity, because we have the largest areas of fertile land in the world. 

The challenges of food security in India can be attributed to various factors, some of the factors are listed below-

Population pressure:

As we know that we are now the most populous country in the world, and India's population is rapidly growing due to its large base. As a result, it puts immense pressure on the availability of food resources. It increases the demand for food, which leads increase in the gap between supply and demand of food.

Low Agricultural Productivity:

Despite having the largest fertile agricultural land in the world, we are not able to produce much, because agricultural productivity is very less as compared to the European countries. Our agricultural productivity is even lower than the international average.

Poverty and inequality: 

A significant share of the population of India has low income, and there is a wide gap between the rich and poor populations. The rich population is easily able to access food at a high rate, however, there are problems with the accessibility of food grains to poor people, which leads to undernutrition and malnutrition problems, especially in children and women.

Climate Change and Monsoon Uncertainty:

Climate change and uncertainty of monsoon rains are major hurdles of low agriculture productivity as agriculture cultivation in India is completely dependent on monsoonal rain directly or indirectly.

Storage and distribution:

Due to inadequate storage and food distribution network, post-harvest loss is very large in India. This leads to food wastage and prevents surplus produce from reaching consumers, or poor people.

There are four pillars of food security namely-

Food availability ( we can achieve this by Increasing agricultural productivity).

Food reachability ( we can achieve this by Strengthening Public Distribution System, reducing income inequality, and reduction in poverty).

Food Stability ( We can achieve this through Sustainable agriculture )

Food usability ( we can achieve this through Spreading awareness to people about the importance of nutritional food).

To address the challenges of food security, the above four pillar needs to be ensured. The following measures can be taken-

Promoting sustainable agriculture practices:

Promoting organic farming, efficient water management, and using robotics, satellite, and nanotechnology in farming can enhance agricultural productivity in the long run.

Land consolidation:

Small fragments of land are a major hurdle for low productivity, land consolidation needs to be done in order to increase productivity.

Investment in irrigation facilities:

Strengthening the irrigation facilities can avoid the losses that occur due to uncertain monsoons.

Investment in cold storage and distribution network: will reduce the post-harvest loss.

Crop diversification:

Mono cropping leads to a decline in soil fertility. Crop diversification and crop combination are needed to increase agricultural productivity.

Strengthening the Public Distribution System ( PDS):

Subsidies public distribution systems and targeted nutritional intervention can help to address immediate food security concerns in poor populations.

Reducing income inequality and poverty reduction:

Poor populations are often not able to access sufficient nutrition all year for all family members. There is a need to increase the level of income of poor households by providing the necessary skills, and sufficient sources of income.

 Education and Awareness: Promoting awareness about nutrition, sustainable farming practices, dietary habits, and proper food storage.


In conclusion, Food security in India is one of the challenging tasks, however, it can be ensured by taking a comprehensive and integrated approach involving sustainable farming, strengthening agricultural infrastructure facilities, investing in agriculture, and educating people

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