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India's Diaspora Policy and Management of Human Resources in India UPSC | Indian Polity | General Studies II

 Table of Contents:

  • Analyze various aspects relating to the Management of Human Resources in India. ( UPPSC 2020)
  • What is India's Diaspora policy? What are the challenges before the Indian Diaspora at present? ( UPPSC 2020)
  • "Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries". Comment with Examples. ( UPSC 2020)


Analyze various aspects relating to the Management of Human Resources in India.

( UPPSC Mains General Studies-II/GS-2 2020)


At present ( 2023), India has about 63 % population in aged 15-59 ( working population. The demographic dividend is very favorable in India and this makes India one of the youngest countries in the world.
Despite such a huge working population in India, India lacks the quality of human resources. Managing and building human capital is key to India's long-term sustainable development.
Managing human resources in India involves various aspects that are essential for effective workforce management and organizational success. 

Let's analyze some of the key aspects related to human resource management in India:

Skill Development and Upskilling: 
With the rapid pace of technological advancements, HR departments in India focus on skill development and upskilling initiatives to keep employees updated and relevant in their roles.

Employee Well-being and Health: 
Taking care of employee well-being and health is crucial for maintaining a productive and healthy workforce. HR teams facilitate employee wellness programs and support initiatives to promote mental and physical well-being.

Workforce Planning: 
HR professionals engage in workforce planning to align human resources with organizational goals and anticipate future talent needs.

Performance Management: 
Performance management systems assess employee performance and provide feedback to enhance productivity and growth. 

Compensation and Benefits: 
Developing competitive and fair compensation packages is essential to attract and retain top talent. 

Employee Engagement and Motivation:
Employee engagement initiatives are crucial to boost morale and motivation within the workforce. HR managers in India implement strategies to foster a positive work culture, provide recognition, and promote work-life balance.

Compliance with Labor Laws: 
India has several labor laws and regulations that govern various aspects of employment. HR professionals must ensure compliance with these laws to avoid legal issues and maintain a healthy employer-employee relationship.

Grievance Handling and Employee Relations: 
HR plays a critical role in managing employee grievances and maintaining healthy employee relations. Effective grievance-handling mechanisms help resolve conflicts and maintain a harmonious workplace.

Talent Retention: 
Retaining top talent is a priority for organizations in India. HR managers work on strategies for talent retention, including career growth opportunities and succession planning to ensure future leaders.

In conclusion, managing human resources in India involves multiple aspects that are essential for building a skilled, motivated, and diverse workforce. Effective human resource management aligns employees' goals with organizational objectives and ensures compliance with labor laws and regulations.


What is India's Diaspora policy? What are the challenges before the Indian Diaspora at present?

( UPPSC Mains General Studies-II/GS-2 2020)


India's Diaspora Policy, also known as the Overseas Indian Affairs (OIA) policy, aims to engage and connect with the Indian diaspora living abroad. The policy was formulated to strengthen ties with the Indian diaspora, foster a sense of belonging and identity, and leverage their knowledge, skills, and resources for the development of India. 

The key objectives of India's Diaspora policy include:

Strengthening Cultural Bonds: 

The policy seeks to strengthen the emotional and cultural connection between India and its diaspora, fostering a sense of pride in their Indian heritage and roots.

India seeks to involve the diaspora in India's socio-cultural events, festivals, and national celebrations, providing opportunities for their active participation.

Supporting Welfare: 

The policy focuses on addressing the welfare needs of the diaspora, including social security, and protection of their rights and interests abroad.

Promoting Investment: 

India encourages its diaspora to invest in the country and contribute to economic growth and development. Various schemes and incentives are provided to facilitate investments and remittances.

Enhancing Knowledge Exchange: 

The policy aims to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills, and expertise between the diaspora and India, leading to mutual benefits and advancements.

Engaging in Philanthropy: 

The Indian diaspora is encouraged to contribute to philanthropic initiatives in India, supporting various social and developmental causes.

Challenges Before the Indian Diaspora at Present:

Integration and Identity: 

Many members of the Indian diaspora face challenges in integrating into the culture and society of their adopted countries while preserving their Indian identity.

Dual Citizenship: 

India does not permit dual citizenship, which poses challenges for the diaspora in terms of voting rights, property ownership, and other rights in both their host country and India.

Legal and Social Issues: 

Indian diaspora members may encounter legal and social issues in their host countries, including discrimination, visa restrictions, and access to social services.

Economic Uncertainty: 

Economic uncertainties in both the host country and India may impact the financial stability of the diaspora, affecting their remittances and investments.

Repatriation During Crises: 

During global crises, like the COVID-19 pandemic, the Indian diaspora faced challenges in repatriation and accessing necessary support and resources.

Cultural Gap: 

Younger generations of the Indian diaspora may experience a cultural gap between their Indian heritage and the culture of their host country, leading to identity issues.

Communication and Connectivity: 

While advancements in technology have improved communication, some members of the diaspora in remote areas may face challenges in staying connected with their roots in India.

Participation and Engagement: 

Engaging the diverse Indian diaspora spread across various countries can be challenging due to language barriers, geographical dispersion, and varying interests.

Despite these challenges, the Indian diaspora remains a vital bridge between India and the world, contributing significantly to India's development, promoting Indian culture globally, and fostering people-to-people ties between India and their host countries. 


"Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries". Comment with Examples. 

( UPPSC Mains General Studies-II/GS-2 2020)


The Indian diaspora indeed plays a significant role in the politics and economy of America and European countries. 

The following are significant roles of the Indian diaspora in the politics of America and European countries:

Election Contributions: 

Indian Americans have become influential political donors in the United States. For instance, in the 2020 U.S. presidential election, several Indian American entrepreneurs and professionals contributed substantial amounts to various political campaigns, influencing policy decisions.

Political Representation: 

Prominent Indian Americans have been elected to key political positions like Kamala Harris became the Vice President of the United States. Rishi Sunak became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. 

The following are significant roles of the Indian diaspora in the economies of America and European countries.

Tech Industry: 

The Indian diaspora has a strong presence in the technology sectors of Silicon Valley. Leaders like Sundar Pichai (CEO of Alphabet Inc. and Google), and Satya Nadella (CEO of Microsoft) have had a profound impact on the global tech industry and its economic contributions.


Indian diaspora entrepreneurs have founded successful companies in the U.S. and Europe, contributing to economic growth. Examples include Arvind Krishna (CEO of IBM) and Nikesh Arora (CEO of Palo Alto Networks).

Cultural Exchange and Diplomacy:

Indian Americans and Europeans of Indian descent often act as bridges for cultural exchange and diplomatic relations between their respective countries. They facilitate trade, tourism, and educational partnerships.

Philanthropy and Social Initiatives:

Prominent members of the Indian diaspora have established foundations and charities that address various social and economic challenges, both in the United States and Europe. These organizations make significant contributions to humanitarian causes.

In summary, the Indian diaspora's influence in American and European politics and economies is undeniable, and it continues to grow, shaping policy decisions, fostering economic growth, and contributing to cultural exchange and diplomacy.

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