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Major Cultural Realms of world UPSC | Cultural evolution and stages | Major cultural realms

About culture:
Culture is a system consisting of traditions, practices, and knowledge systems. Culture is the way of life of the people.
Culture is not a static system, it is a dynamic system; Society remains alive and functional as long as they are able to adapt itself to the changing environment (both material and cultural) and modify its culture accordingly.
In the past, geographical barriers such as mountains and water bodies forced people to live in isolation, leading to the emergence of distinct cultures in each region.
Diversity in the physical environment (climate, terrain, relief, etc.) and socio-economic conditions (knowledge, philosophy, economic base, technology, etc.) has led to the development of different types of culture in different geographical areas.

Cultural Realm (Region):
Each culture has some geographical area of ​​influence and this area is called the cultural Realm (Region) of that culture.
Based on the areas of influence of culture, there are four major large cultural Realms (Region) and two mid-cultural Realms (Region).

The world's four major cultural regions are:
  • Western cultural Realm (Occidental Cultural)
  • Islamic Cultural Realm
  • Indian cultural Realm
  • East Asian cultural Realm

There are two Meso-cultural realms:
  • Southeast Asian Cultural Region
  • negro African territories

Western Cultural Realm (Occidental Cultural):
  • Christianity and European society are two important components of the Western cultural region.
  • The Occidental Cultural Region includes the region of Europe, Russia, North America, South America, and Australia.
  • In the western cultural spheres, in the process of modernization, religious values ​​have been kept separate from the administration.

Islamic Cultural Realm:
  • Islamic cultural Realm is influenced by Islamic values.
  • The Islamic cultural region includes the region of North Africa, West Asia, and Central Asia.
  • The heart of the Islamic cultural region is the Arabian Peninsula.

Indian Cultural Realm:
  • The Indian cultural sphere is characterized by joint family, caste system, monsoon climate, and worship of several deities.
  • The countries of the Indian cultural sphere are India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
  • The indo-Gangetic region is central to the Indian cultural realm.

East Asian Realm:
  • Buddhism and the Mongoloid race are two major components of East Asian regions.
  • The regions of the East Asian region are Mongolia, China, South Korea, North Korea, and Japan.

Southeast Asian Cultural Realm:
  • The territories of all ten Southeast Asian countries are included in the Southeast Asian Cultural Area.
  • It is a blend of Hindu, Christian, Buddhist, and Islamic values.

Negro African Realm:
  • The region is located south of the Sahara Desert and belongs to the Negro African region.
  • This is the culture of many African tribes.

Try to solve the following questions:
  • "Indo-Gangetic hearth is considered to be one of the world's richest cultural realms." Examine.  (UPSC 2014, 200 words, 15 marks)
  • Describe the characteristics of the major cultural realms of the world. ( 65th BPSC geography)
  • Divide the world into cultural realms and describe their cultural characteristics. ( 60-62nd BPSC geography)
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